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Ligurian gastronomy

There is little news concerning the most ancient historical dimension with regard to the cuisine of Sanremo. The strong reflection of Genoese influence is certainly present, already in equilibrium between flavours of the sea and the land.

The documents relating to the colonization of the territory of Sanremo, commissioned by the Bishop of Genoa in 979 AD mention the most cultivated products of the land and therefore the most useful for the cooking of the time: first of all the vines and then the figs, the arable crops, the legumes, the vegetables, the fruit and only the olive tree in a marginal way. In the Middle Ages, arable crops included a large quantity of products, including spelt, barley, oats, palmola, panic grass: everything was useful for the production of rustic breads and focaccia, and from which however there is the memory of the habit of producing savoury pies. Chickpeas are among the legumes which are still important , and are the main ingredient of current "fast" snacks, which you will get to know. The fig was of principal importance, subsequently followed by the mass introduction of the citrus fruit crop, which was replaced by the flower crop only at the end of the nineteenth century. The olive tree was of minor importance: its mass diffusion was supported only from the fifteenth century onwards.

Already in the thirteenth century we have the first news of dried pasta production in the Ligurian territory: this is one of the cornerstones of Mediterranean cuisine. Grain crops also located on the heights of villages close to the sea were already decisive factors, together with grain imports from the entire Mediterranean area.

The spread of savoury stuffed pies, a true culinary myth of the Middle Ages, was very diffused throughout Italy and reached us in various forms.

In the late Middle Ages cod from the North Sea also arrived on the tables of Liguria. Baccalà (salted codfish) or stoccafisso, the typical preparations of this fish become an integral part of the local diet. In the same way as the "tonnina", the tuna in salt, imported from Sardinia or in any case from the entire western Mediterranean.

The use of fish is then fundamental especially during the many "lean" periods, starting with Lent. Replacing meat, fish is used in every way and form: the soups triumph, which are still well known today to the Sanremo gastronomy.

Definition of the nineteenth century

With the arrival on Ligurian territory of products of American origin, traditional Ligurian gastronomy defined itself, even in its variant from the Ponente Western Ligurian region. What would we think of the Mediterranean diet without tomatoes, for example. Yet the introduction of the cultivation of tomatoes, and especially that of potatoes, had been strongly restricted in Liguria. Just think of the transformation of savoury pies that saw the substitution of the "machetto" (anchovy paste) with tomato sauce or the addition of potatoes in the amalgam for the "brandade" of the firm stoccasfisso ("branda- cujun") .

Fortunately, there are many documents relating to the nineteenth century, such as the "mercurial", product lists with price indications, which tell us exactly what the situation of the food market was. Other documents are those related to the agricultural use of the territory, also useful for understanding the local procurement of foodstuffs, which have often now disappeared.

Agricultural use of the territory of Sanremo in the nineteenth century

In 1848, in the territory of Sanremo, for 2420 hectares planted with olive groves, there are 50 hectares of wheat, 30 of beans, 20 of broad beans and potatoes, as well as 130 ofchestnuts, at higher altitudes and at the edges of the woods that crown the city.

In 1868 it is still evident that the most important crops were citrus and olive trees, followed by palms and vines. However, the latter were already tormented by the diseases that decimated the entire local wine production, as well as Italian, throughout the second half of the nineteenth century.

In 1879 the cultivation of wheat started , as well as that of barley, followed by those of legumes (beans, peas, broad beans). Potatoes are well established, chestnuts are decreasing and the first cultivations of "grass and flowers" are noticed. However, keep in mind that still at that date, at least one thousand citrus plants were planted in one hectare, with a yield of 50,000 fruits per hectare.

Documentation in the State Archive of Imperia, Section of State Archives of San Remo, Municipality of San Remo, Series III, box 10, f.55.

The mercurials: how and where they were bought, how the modern kitchen was formed

On the basis of a document relating to the trend of trade in the Sanremo area, dated 30 August 1828, one notices the notable presence of cod and of "Stok fi x", marketed in the Genoese area, but actually coming from the Atlantic route.

A detailed commercial inventory for the "Province of San Remo", between the years 1853 and 1857 and a mercurial of the prices of 1857 constitute a valuable source of information. The most important exchange partner is France, followed by the Italian Duchies (Emilian zone) and the Americas: the influence of the New World was well established. Cocoa and "chocolate" came from Liverpool and France in large quantities from their colonies. Despite this, in Sanremo, in the late nineteenth century, there was a plant dedicated to the treatment of chocolate. Tea came from India. Coffee was distinct from the area of ​​origin (Ceylon, Santiago, Havana, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Malabar, Rio, Bahia, Santos ...). The consumption of these foods had spread in the area, at the expense of the wealthy classes, since the eighteenth century and then spread to many social areas, also thanks to the strong presence of elite tourists, accustomed to a consumption of genres called "colonial".

Meat was certainly linked to a local trade, linked to the presence of the precious Piedmontese cattle herds directly on the Maritime Alps, without forgetting the flocks of sheep, present in large numbers even in extreme western Liguria. Nor should we forget the pig, important in traditional culinary art, especially in rural areas. Dutch cheeses, appreciated by Nordic guests, undermine the prized productions of our pastoral hinterland. Meats and poultry could also come from Emilia, while salted fish, in addition to sardines and anchovies, came from central Italy. Cod came from France and Sweden and the variant of the same, the Stoccafisso, from Gibraltar, passing through from Norwegian origin, in an annual quantity of 40,000 kilograms. Finally, the arrival of grains and flours is impressive: Russia, Turkey, southern Italy, all aimed at serving the flourishing production of pasta products that are undeniably part of the Mediterranean gastronomic culture.

Documentation in the State Archive of Imperia, Section of State Archives of San Remo, Municipality of San Remo, Series III, box 10, f.56.

Even with these brief introductory notes, it can be understood that approaching the gastronomic culture of Western Liguria is an exciting adventure. You will be tempted by an inexhaustible variety of flavours, which keeps thir roots in a remote past linked to the sea and the territory.

Dishes not to be missed

For a quick snack, full of flavour

Sardenaira Farinata

Panissa Chard cake or green pies

First courses

Borage ravioli Fish ravioli Lasagna al pesto

Meats

Rabbit alla sanremasca Cima (Veal stuffed with vegetables)

Vegetables, legumes

Stuffed vegetables

Stuffed green cabbage ("u preve") Potato cake

Fritters of zucchini trombette from Albenga

Fish and not only Stoccasfisso "brandacujun" Ciuppin

Whitebait Stuffed salted codfish Ajada

Stuffed sardines

Desserts

Badalucco cake Sweet salami Taggia Biscuits

Olive oil

Gastronomy: the pleasure of tasty gastronomy

When in the middle of the eighteenth century the famous French painter Fragonard visited Sanremo he could not help but portray its typical cuisine. Sanremo cuisine, a variation of the renowned Ligurian cuisine, is rich in flavours and aromas. It has evolved in its own way, just for those who must relax while maintaining energy for enjoyment. The table is the meeting point for the sea and the land, fish and vegetables.

The distinguishing features of this refinement, as simple as they are, are easily identifiable:

the variety: one type of product or ingredient does not predominate, but ranges from fish to vegetables, meats to savoury and sweet pies, without interruption, and the encounter between flavours of the sea and flavours of the

tthe land in deference to the image of the city;

the evolution of dishes from the tradition of the Middle Ages is realized in the encounter with the "new" products of American origin, laboriously, but definitively accepted during the nineteenth century, the main condiment is the extra-virgin olive oil of "taggiasca" variety ", A dominant cultivar in the area, with full inclusion in the

context of Mediterranean gastronomic culture

an interregional and international touch, in relation to the continuous commercial and cultural exchanges both with the Padana area in Italy and with all the coasts of the Mediterranean and Northern Europe.

organoleptic characteristics

The Oil produced in the Province of Imperia derives from

olives from a unique cultivation , Taggiasca

The olive groves, located at an altitude varying between sea level and 600 metres, allow a large harvest that, starting in November, lasts throughout the winter, until the better months of April and May. The treatment of olives produced in recent months, leads to the production of a very special oil, which tends to have a milky white colour traditionally called 'Biancardo' or 'Biancaldo'. Naturally, the best oils are obtained with olives harvested in the months of January, February and March.

The Taggiasca cultivation produces a fruit that when ripe has a purplish black colour and a medium size that oscillates around 2 grams. In the Province of Imperia, it is used preserved in brine for consumption as 'table olives' and in the preparation of some typical Ligurian dishes such as "Sardenaira", Ligurian rabbit, olive patè and many others, in addition to traditional production of excellent quality oil. The latter has a golden colour of pale straw and the perfume is pleasantly fruity in freshly produced virgin oils. The taste is delicate, tending to sweet.

It goes well with all the traditional Mediterranean dishes and thanks to its delicate, not aggressive taste, it is excellent on fish.

Always by virtue of its 'gentle' flavour, it represents an excellent approach to the consumption of extra virgin olive oil for those who, by tradition and culture, are not used to using this valuable food.

Finally, some tips for conservation. Unlike wine, oil does not improve with aging (the old proverb "new oil old wine " is worth it); it is therefore advisable not to make extra supplies.

In general, extra virgin olive oil preserves its intact organoleptic properties for about a year. It must however be stored at a medium and constant temperature and in the dark. Light and prolonged contact with the air trigger oxidation processes that lead to the expiration of its organoleptic properties a rancidity, a chemical process common to all fats

TAGGIASCA CULTIVATION

It is a variety of the province of Imperia, so here we repeat that the many plants that form, with other varieties, the Experimental Olive Grove, have achieved considerable development, with the characteristic large and enlarged crown, majestic for the development of the branch which is very elongated and very pendulous. Also the fruit has retained its characteristic ovalized cylindrical shape, with a thickness that has reached an average weight of g. 2.31 and with the marked characteristic of very gradual maturation. An excellent variety which makes up 99% of the Olive territory of the province of Imperia. It is also suitable for table use.

Characteristics Nutritional values

Fats, or lipids, are essential nutrients for humans, representing the most concentrated energy form (about 9 cal / g) and supplying essential fatty acids, so-called because they must be introduced as such because the organism is incapable of producing them. They also allow the absorption by the intestine of the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D,, K).

Alongside the energy purpose (fats are its reserve form), they also have a plastic function, indispensable for the formation and maintenance of cell membranes; their deficiency causes an incomplete formation of different structures of the organism (ovary, liver, etc.).

The lipids of human interest are predominantly constituted by triglycerides (consisting of three fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule). This also applies to olive oil, made of 100% fat. It is part of the visible plant lipids, that is, those that have been completely separated from the original tissues. For invisible fats are meant instead those not extracted but consumed as such in the diet (eg: those contained in meat, fish, cheese, etc.). The fatty acid chains differ from each other by: 1. number of carbon atoms (from 2 to 20)

number of hydrogen atoms linked to each carbon (from 1 to 3)

These characteristics refer to the subdivision of saturated and unsaturated fats, which is fundamental for nutritional implications.

It is a variety of the province of Imperia, so here we repeat that the many

saturated and unsaturated fats

Saturated fats are present predominantly in foods of animal origin, unsaturated in those of vegetable origin

The term SATURATED refers to fatty acids in which the various carbon atoms are coupled to a hydrogen atom (left image); when instead some bonds are not saturated, the acids are defined UNSATURATED. The latter have a minimum of a double bond (eg oleic acid, monounsaturated), a 2 (eg linoleic acid), a 3 (eg alpha-linoleic acid), etc. In these last two cases, and in other cases of major unsaturation, we speak of POLYUNSATURATED fatty acids

 

Saturated fats are the most directly responsible for the increase in cholesterol found in adulthood. This excess, as it can not be completely disposed of by the body, accumulates in the form of atheromatous plaque inside the arterial wall, determining a thickening directly responsible for:

Reduction of the calibre, the more pronounced the lumen is, the reduction of the elasticity of the vessel with consequent increase in pressure, the formation of roughness inside the vessel itself. The blood does not flow regularly and uniformly any longer, but forms dangerous vortexes which, interrupting the continuity of the flow, favour further deposits. In this way, a diet excessively rich in saturated fats and cholesterol often proves to be decisive in favouring the onset of cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases.

The excess of polyunsaturated fatty acids has shown the existence of a correlation with an increased incidence of neoplasia (perhaps as a co-carcinogen). It should also be remembered that the auto-oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids occurs more quickly than that of monounsaturated oleic acid, which means that the latter remains longer unaltered.

Digestibility of olive oil

Compared to other oils, olive oil has a greater digestibility factor, and is therefore more easily absorbed by the intestinal mucosa (a food is more digestible at least as long as it remains in the digestive tract). We briefly illustrate the mechanism of digestion of lipid substances. In normal diet, fats make up roughly 20 - 40% of the total calories consumed daily, ie from 500 to about 1,000 calories. In order for the intestine to absorb the fats, and therefore to use them, they must be modified, or attacked by the digestive enzymes released by the exocrine glands of the pancreas, which reduce their size by splitting them into their basic constituents. For this to happen correctly it is necessary that the fats are first emulsified by the bile salts, whose task consists in practice in orientating the lipid in the right position, thus allowing an easier enzymatic attack.

The digestibility of fats depends on the length

of the chain and the type of fatty acids present in the triglyceride molecule. In particular, the speed of hydrolytic digestion is influenced by the presence of significant quantities of saturated fatty acids (eg stearic acid). The predominance of a certain type of acid, in fact, determines the nutritional qualities of the fatty substance and therefore its metabolic fate. The high digestibility of olive oil is given by the presence of oleic acid in position 2 of the triglyceride, which provides a 2-monoglyceride.

In this way the attack of the bile is facilitated and therefore penetration through the intestinal mucosa.

Cholesterol and olive oil

The subdivision into bad and good cholesterol refers to the lipoproteins that carry it. The level of LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein), which bring the cholesterol to the tissues, increases in the presence of an excess of the latter. On the other hand, HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) transport this excess to the liver which will eliminate it through the biliary tract.

For this reason HDLs perform a protective action against atherosclerosis: the higher the rate, the more cholesterol is removed. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (characteristic of seed oils) have proved capable of lowering the blood cholesterol, however, acting on both LDL and HDL. The mono-unsaturated oleic acid (contained in olive oil as a percentage of 75%), acts by reducing the LDL level exclusively and increasing that of HDL.

Olive oil in the kitchen

The greater resistance of olive oil is also demonstrated at the high temperatures reached during cooking, and even more during frying. In fact the formation of toxic substances (polymers, peroxides and therefore aldehydes, ketones, hydroperoxides) is favoured by the presence of the polyunsaturated double bonds.

This does not mean eliminating the fatty acids with more points of unsaturation, essential for example to maintain optimal fluidity and membrane permeability, but rather to reduce the amount introduced.

The recommended levels of intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids for a balanced diet are around 3% of total calories, with an increase of 4.5% in pregnant women and 5-7% in the nurse.

Olive oil, compared to the excesses contained in the

seed oils, respect this requirement well. It also seems that oleic acid, contained in high quantities only in olive oil, in fluence, within certain ratios, the transformation of linoleic acid into arachidonic acid, the most physiologically active.

Alongside the fatty acid component we find in olive oil important substances such as tocopherol (vitamin E), polyphenols and squalene, the latter two main factors responsible for its high antioxidant power since tocopherol is present in low quantities, contrary to that in seed oils. It was also seen that an excess of vitamin E could facilitate tumour growth.

Properties of olive oil

The main properties of olive oil and oleic

acid can be summarized as follows.

Protective effect in hepatitis and diseases of the biliary tract; Cholecystocinetic effect; Facilitation of calcium by

of the intestine (limited by saturated fatty acids);

Stimulation of pancreatic activity; Improvement of ulcer and gastritis linked to the reduced

acid hypersecretion and hypermotility;

Role limiting the damage caused by the excess of saturated fatty acids (atherosclerosis) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (early cellular aging); Improved resistance to oxidation at temperature

environment

Better resistance to high and long-lasting temperatures reached during cooking and frying.

Tasting

How to taste an olive oil

For a good taster it is essential to have the senses of taste and smell developed and trained. Tasting plays a role of considerable importance at the end of the evaluation of an oil. Experience and practice perfect this profession, which should be considered as a real "Art". In the olive-growing areas there are associations that periodically organize specific courses in order to learn the tasting techniques. The result is the valueing of a natural product, now considered fundamental and indicated by dieticians and nutritionists as a basis for proper nutrition.

For best results in oil tasting

it is important to observe some rules:

the best hours to perform the test are considered the central hours of the morning away from meals, the airways must be free, one's state of health must be perfect. An upset stomach, fatigue or other, can lead to wrong judgments, strongly flavoured foods (eg: onions, garlic, chocolate, coffee, etc.) must not have consumed the previous day , do not smoke at least for a hour before tasting, do not use perfumes, aftershave or the like during the tasting, between tastings a short period of time must pass, as the sensory organs must rest to not affect the next test; In the olive oil practice it is usual to chew a piece of apple, but it would be better to avoid any food, rinse your mouth with water and wait. In the case of olive oil it is not convenient to use bread as the latter leaves fermented or toasted notes very similar to some product defects, the environment must be free of noises, which may cause the taster to lose concentration, and above all without odours, in order not to disturb the analysis. In fact, oil has a great ability to absorb and dissolve many odourous chemicals also deriving from other foods. For this reason it is necessary to pay close attention to the place of conservation.

In order to optimize the tasting, the office or company panels (group of people gathered to express an opinion) use special cabins in a conditioned environment. Even if the opinions are still diverging, by tasting an oil the visual examination of it not carried out. In fact, it is believed that colour can distort judgment by creating preconceptions about the perceptive characteristics of the product in the taster. Instead, the consumer makes extensive use of visual analysis because it is the only experience he can have before buying the product.

We tend to think that light oils come from northern regions and greener oils have been produced in the South of Italy. In reality there is not always a relationship between colour and area of origin. The colour depends on the cultivation and the various methods of extraction and processing.

The tasting is then carried out in special dark glasses like the one shown on this page.

DIRECT OLFACTORY EXAM: This is the first exam performed. The sample is taken (the chosen optimal temperature is between 27 ° C and 29 ° C) near the nostrils.

A deep inhalation is carried out trying to understand

all the different aromatic sensations

To prevent the olfactory membrane from getting too tired , it is advisable not to repeat this operation more than three times. Generally the first feeling is the one that counts. Subsequent processing can only confuse ideas

INDIRECT OLFACTORY EXAM: A small sip of oil, about a spoon, is taken from the sample. The oil will touch the oral mucosa allowing the taster to perceive the intensity of the bitterness. Of the four flavours (sweet, sour, salty and bitter) bitterness is the only one that can be perceived. Occasionally there may be a slight hint of sweetness, which, however, does not derive from sugary substances present, but is a psychological effect, due to the lack of a bitter sensation.

In addition, common chemical sensations are perceived, such as: spicy, hot and metallic, and kinetic sensations such as viscosity and density.

Then air is drawn from the mouth, keeping the tongue against the palate. This causes effects that are certainly not very elegant, but necessary. This operation can be repeated several times. Care should be taken not to swallow the oil, as the spicy taste may cause coughing.

This technique allows the ascent of the aromatic molecules along the nasal turbinates, up to the olfactory membrane, allowing the aroma to be appreciated in all its fullness. In fact, the retro-note is the most intense and best defined sensation in tasting compared to the direct olfactory one.

WINE OF THE PONENTE (WESTERN LIGURIA)

Twenty-five centuries for wine in Liguria di Ponente (Western Liguria)

In Liguria di Ponente there are Ligurian wines with a greater personality. Of course, the region is famous for the production of the Cinque Terre, for those vineyards that are miraculously arranged on highly steep terrain and sloping down to the sea. After the Province of La Spezia, it is the Province of Imperia that has almost 1000 hectares of land planted with vines. And here too often the will to drive the vineyard forward forces a continuous struggle with the conditions of the territory ... even here there is a need for terracing and continuous water control, in order to keep vines often at the limits of the physical possibility. In the west, two DOC areas are concentrated. The first, towards the border with France, is the oldest, dated to 1972, and refers to the celebrated Rossese di Dolceacqua, also known simply as Dolceacqua, which may have, with appropriate refinement in barrels and an increase in the alcoholic grade, even the qualification of Superior. In 1988 the "Riviera Ligure di Ponente" DOC was created, extending between the provinces of Imperia and Savona. It includes the white Vermentino and Pigato, the red Ormeasco, which can also be Superiore or Rosé Schiacchetrà, as well as Rossese di Albenga, quite different from that of Dolceacqua. The phenomenon of definition of the DOC has put some order into the complex wine tradition of the Western Liguria. In fact, many different vines thrive here, often made together on the basis of quantitative research. There are also many table wines produced, the so-called "home-grown", whose value is very varied. They are often found in restaurants and are also deserve tasting.

Liguria di Ponente land of wine?

Of course, a land of wine. And with proposals rich in quality and variety. Because the vineyards are at different altitudes and in different microclimatic situations. And the wines are "made of stone, of sun, of the breath of the sea, and have the scent of dawn in the calm of July" (Vittorio G. Rossi). The wine from Liguria di Ponente will be the special wine made for your home, the fruit of unspeakable efforts and attention.

Twenty-five centuries have passed since the Ligurians knew the wine of the Greeks of Marseilles and Nice. Twenty-five centuries of passion and struggle, to have today a rare and envied product, perhaps not yet properly known.

In the middle a story made of great wines. Importation of vines and exports of the product everywhere. So many events to put together, to connect, to know. The historian Massimo Quaini still says that "that of Ligurian viticulture still remains a little-known chapter not only in agricultural history, but also and above all in the history of vines and wine in Europe".

The spirit of the Ligurian winemaker on a historical level

The Ligurian farmer from the Ponente loves the vineyard. Otherwise it could not be explained why there are vineyards in places that are almost inaccessible but productive. Because the vineyards are still there

despite the massive presence of the olive tree. Because however everyone wants to have wine produced by their vineyard.

The conditions favourable to a quality and varied production are: in the first place the three cultural zones, . One almost coastal, the other hilly, the last mountain. Furthermore, a relationship with the Piedmontese and Padano Valley areas and with the entire Mediterranean in any case. The tradition of the Ligurian farmer wants the cellar to be full of every quality of wine. He also wanted a variety of vines to ensure a decent production each year. Production that is obtained by putting together what also comes from different vineyards

different. And so "home-made wine" is created. Also Liguria di Ponente is rich in these wines, called "home-grown". The quality is very varied: there are areas which are more dedicated and to wine production. We must have a nose and a taste in looking for them. But there is also the basis of the continuous work that led to the selection of DOC.

However, in Liguria di Ponente, many vines survive, the historical legacy of a Liguria which trades and imports. If the Ormeasco is in relationship with the Piedmont Dolcetto and the Vermentino with the Spanish Malvasias (perhaps), we still have the Moscato, the Sangiovese, the croileura from Piedmont, the Verdea from Greece ... and the Iberian vines, the aramon and the madeira. And still the most rural barbarossa and ciliegiolo...

And so much remains to be discovered, for you and for the scholar.

First testimonies: the ancient Ligurians

Well, yes, the ancient Ligurians knew wine. A people still in many ways mysterious, very primitive. Proud and combative, divided into tribes perpetually fighting each other. A people used to struggle with nature and with enemy peoples, especially the Romans. Literary sources tell us about the relationship between the Ligurians and wine. Strabone says that the Ligurians exported lumber, animals, skins and honey, living on milk and a drink based on barley. In return they also received Italic wine, much appreciated. But they also produced wine, which however Strabo defines as "poor, resinous and sour". The production of wine is also mentioned in the so-called "Polce- vera table", which concerns overlapping matters among Ligurian tribes, in the Genoese hinterland.

From whom had they learned to cultivate the vine, which had improved their cultivation skills? It is almost certainly contact with the Greek colonies of Marseille and Nice, present since the 6th century BC.

The evidence: still today, the support pole of the vineyard, in Liguria is called carassa, a term derived from the Greek of Marseilles Karax, that is "vineyard stake".

In addition, the Ligurian Epanteri Montani, who lived in the land on the edge of the Ligurian Alps, on the Piedmont side of the Tanaro valley, already produced wine, with cereals.

To conquer these tribes, the Roman conquerors had to destroy their cereal crops and especially their vines.

Strabo

He was a geographer and a historian of ancient Greece. Born in Amaziah in 63 BC, he lived in Rome as a young man. He travelled a lot and wrote 47 books of geography, talking about known lands and peoples. The quote is in Strabo, IV 6, 2.

Roman colonization: a 'culture of wine' is formed

Even under the Romans, grapevines were an important crop in western Liguria.

A colonization was required near the coast, where the Via Julia Augusta passed. The crops, varied and extensive, were based on rustic funds, often linked to a villa or a family settlement. Boats transporting wine were regularly transported to the Ligurian coasts and ports. It was mostly Spanish wine, of various quality. Wine often also destined for Rome, where it was drunk, watered down and mixed with honey. The Roman ship of Republican age lying in front of Albenga was full of wine amphorae. And also that found in the waters of Diano Marina. The finds of both wrecks can be seen in the museums of Albenga and Diano Marina (the latter is in the process of being organized).

In Western Liguria, therefore, there was a "culture of wine", even if not from the local area. The Roman colonization had certainly strengthened and expanded the production of the vine also along the slopes and in the valley bottoms.

For example, there is a structure for the production of wine amphorae near Santo Stefano al Mare, a little east of Taggia and Sanremo. Known as Porzani which recalls the Porciano fund mentioned in a document dated 980.

The settlement was probably linked to a villa. It made ceramics and amphorae for wine, kept and traded in the amphorae produced on site. The moment of maximum development of the structure seems to have been the first century AD ...

After the barbarian invasions: the first documents Centuries of devastation and difficulty: but wine remained popular. A lot was lost compared to the Roman age in the phase of barbarian invasions. The population left the coast line and returned to live in more internal and elevated places. But the cultivation of the vine was not eliminated. It also favoured the maintenance of the territorial control carried out by governments of Latin tradition, such as the Byzantine one in the 6th and 7th centuries. Moreover, even the Germanic part of the population, from the Longobards onwards, knows how to appreciate the special drink. Furthermore, the role of the spread of the Christian religion, which was affirmed in the fourth century, should not be forgotten. The symbology linked to the vine and to the wine are however factors which counted for the maintenance and care of the historical heritage of the vineyard.

We recall the sculptural productions of the local high-medieval shops, referring to the period of Lombard occupation and concentrated in the 8th century AD.: The bunch of grapes is a recurring motif.

The bishop of Genoa Teodolfo in 979 A.D. in fact conceded large territories in the Matuzian area (that is, the area of the current Sanremo) and in Taggia to about forty settlers. They had to restore the abandoned crops following on from the danger of Saracen pirates. A fixed fee and then a portion of the product had to be delivered to the prelate. The vine was known, in particular in the Taggia area, towards the current area of Riva Ligure. For the first ten years, the usage fee was fixed as a chicken, so in the middle of the harvest. After ten years the new vines would have achieved a good productivity.

Sculptural productions of local high-medieval shops

A relief from the 8th century A.D. preserved in the crypt of the Cathedral of Ventimiglia, shows typical bunches of grapes in the shape of a heart. And so in Sanremo the excavations of the Baptistery have unearthed a small pillar from the 8th century, now in the Civic Museum, bearing grape bunch motifs. In the end, great skill was demonstrated by these sculptors of the Lombard age in a central slab of a fence preserved in the complex of the Baptistery of Albenga.

The full Middle Ages: the affirmation of the vine. To the east of Sanremo

Many documents and a confirmation: the vine was not only reintroduced, but the cultivation was already lively. In 1029 the inhabitants of the lands of the monastery of Santo Stefano di Genova, to the east of Taggia (territory of Villaregia, between today's Riva Ligure and Santo Stefano al Mare), undertook to increase the surface of the vines, next to barley, wheat and beans. In 1049 the Countess Adelaide di Susa ceded her rights on the Villaregia area to the monastery of Santo Stefano di Genova, citing the presence of the vines in this area. In the twelfth century, the vineyards were concentrated along the coast, between the hill and the sea shore, both in the Taggia plateau and beyond the current Riva Ligure. Almost all the documents relating to the relationship between the Benedictines of Santo Stefano and the local inhabitants had the vineyard in the role of protagonist. For example, at the end of the twelfth century, a Bonavida was deprived of the vineyard by the severe judgment of the abbot of Santo Stefano: his daughter had indeed committed adultery ... The affirmation of the vine: Taggia, Bussana and the Sanremo area

To the west, the vineyard triumphed between Taggia and Bussana. Arma's settlement was destroyed in 1270 and remained uninhabited for a long time. The vineyard occupied more and more space. So also in the Armea valley, towards Bussana. Between 1357 and 1428 Bussana was included in the Taggia district. Among the reasons for conflict between the two towns, however, there was the tax on wine measures sold. Imposed by Taggia, it hit Bussana hard, because the latter community claimed to produce a wine of inferior quality to that of Taggese. The local plain was therefore a place of excellence for the production of wine: easy access, wide spaces, good ventilation and exposure to the sun, a climate that was then dry and pleasant. And above all great expertise of local winemakers, who preferred certain qualities, avoiding mixing the vines. Also there were big leading companies. It is sufficient to mention the Cistercians of the convent once present over the current Riva Ligure, already established at the end of the twelfth century. They depended on that of Sant'Andrea di Sestri. Their largest vineyard is mentioned in the Taggia Statute of 1381: it was on the edge of the boundary with the territory of the Arma, at about 750-800 m. from the current coastline. Today there is no longer a vine, but many modern buildings.

The affirmation of the vine: to the west of Sanremo Many documents and only one reality: wine as the main product. This can be based on the deeds of the notary Giovanni di Amandolesio, active in Ventimiglia between 1256 and 1264. The vineyard is present in a massive way, in that period, between Ventimiglia and Taggia. The producers sold directly, up to 9,000 litres at a time. The Ventimigliaese production of 1258-59 had been 16,000 litres of wine, but the following year had exceeded 20000 litres. The documents do not distinguish the types of wine, but only the production area. In any case it is understood that it was a good wine, of high alcohol content and could be kept. In Ventimiglia there was an active tavern, frequented by soldiers from the garrisons of the local castles. It must have been a rather noisy and lively environment. A good quantity of wine was destined for exportation, in the main Ligurian centres, including Genoa and the Levante, although this area was in turn a notable producer of wines.

In Liguria di Ponente chestnut (veges) and oak (butis) barrels were produced, which could contain more than three hundred litres of wine.

On the table, the wine was brought in Cevari. They were containers formed of slats. The largest quantities were kept in barrels and botticines of various sizes, in the pantry.

Wine from the East of Liguria: a new prospective

Authoritative studies overturn some opinions regarding the diffusion of viticulture in Liguria. One no longer thinks of the importance of the vines from Spain in Liguria, but rather the reverse route. The studies of Dion and Quaini hypothesize and clarify: liqueur wines were present until the mid-thirteenth century in the European East. From here they would have been imported to the West, including the Iberian peninsula. But since the Cinque Terre and Taggia appeared sudddenly as producers of liqueur wines, it is very probable that Liguria accepted the eastern vines before Spain, where they would have been imported in the late medieval phase. However, the situation falls within the ambit of a series of very close relations between the entire context of the Mediterranean West, in which it is not easy to find the exact course of the routes.

Wine in the Statutes of San Remo

The Statutes of Sanremo of 1435 speak a lot about wine. The vine was cultivated, wine was produced to be exported and imported. There was a "culture of wine". This is why a lot of information comes from the records of the gabelles (import and export taxes). And a sale of the wine gabelle is quoted in a document dated May 15, 1376. The vineyard was protected from theft by the feast of San Giovanni (June 24) up to San Michele (September 29). Only children under 14 were forgiven. Because all children always went there to sneak a few ripe grapes. Sales were regulated because the product was destined for the internal market as export, given gradation and quality. Fixed and certified measurements were used (pint, half, third, fourth). And quality was safeguarded. Today, only a few years ago, attention has been paid again to quality. The hosts could not water the wine, nor was it possible to sell too young wine, must or, worse, old wine mixed with water.

Wine in the Statutes of Taggia

In the Statutes of Taggia of 1381 there are many aspects relating to wine. It is obvious: the vine was the main cultivation, supported also by public and religious institutions. The harvest was not regulated on the basis of fixed days of beginning and end. It could be established from year to year, depending on the state of the grapes and the climatic conditions. This is an important detail, an index of attention to quality.

Even here it was forbidden to enter the vineyards of others in the period between the first of April until the harvest. The penalties were heavier if you entered the vineyard at night. The vigilance was entrusted to the "campari", ie the officers who controlled the fields.

Now we come to the product: in any case, wine could only be sold until the Hail Mary in the evening. Then there was an alcoholic "curfew". At night, abundant drinking, could lead to criminal excesses.

In 1488 the Republic of Genoa established the magistrature of the "Provvisori del vino" Provisioners of wine. The product came from the Rivieras, as well as from Piedmont, Lombardy and Corsica. It was stored in warehouses and controlled by the government. The Public wine warehouse was founded, at a price that was periodically appraised and contracted. Taggia between the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries: the myth of 'moscatel- lo'

So, what was this moscatello wine like? The mythical wine mentioned in the late Middle Ages. The wine that still in the nineteenth century was a pride of the eastern areas of San Remo. It was witnessed by Agostino Giustiniani, in his Annals of 1534: a wine that was cultivated between Taggia, Bussana (today in the municipality of Sanremo), Castelnuovo, Pompeiana, Terzorio, Piano della Foce (today Santo Stefano al Mare) and the Marina di Taggia (today Riva Ligure). It was a wine of "great goodness that is reputed to be not inferior to the Candiotte malvasia, nor to the Cypriot wines, from the Greeks of Naples". A golden, friendly and fragrant, sweet wine that today we would taste together with delicate and delicious desserts.

The vine was sustained and protected at the regional level. The land registry office of Porto Maurizio in 1405 obliged, by planting a new vineyard, to place 20% of moscatello. Here then is the Ligurian farmer from western Liguria who imposed all the varieties of vines possible, but was forced to safeguard the main production of the region.

Moscatello wine was also appreciated in navigation. Surely it gave courage and strength to sailors. Luciano Doria's fleet embarked a large quantity in 1416, while leaving in search of a dangerous pirate. Surely some export difficulties were posed by local taxes. According to a document dated 1456, the calculation of the tax for the moscatello was known: two coins each metreta (about 100 litres). But above all we talk about the other qualities of wine produced, variously taxed, also depending on the method of transport: rocesio (today's rossese), the vermilio red wine and the musts.

Moscatello in England

Ligurian wine from Ponente became famous in Europe. And it did so long before the spread of the current DOC. In the middle of the fourteenth century global weather conditions worsened. The vine could no longer be grown in the British Isles. The wealthy classes were desperate, as they drank wine and not the "popular" beer. Imports of wine from the Mediterranean started. The precious wines of Taggesi and of Liguria di Ponente were embarked. They reached the English Channel, Excluded on the mainland, Southampton and London in England. The ships returned loaded with Nordic goods, sometimes precious, such as English alabaster, sometimes simple goods, like the stoccafisso of the North Sea.

The chronicle of the Dominican Father Nicolò Calvi states that in 1531 wine was the most important production for Taggia. A trade that guaranteed 900- 1000 scudos of income per year. And it does not fail to mention the export of wine to England, which continued in 1507. Like all Taggesi, Calvi knew the properties of wine. Concerning the land of the Alba- reto owned by its convent, located in a rather high place, the planting of vines was not recommended: the wine remained acid because the place was too cold.

Is there still moscatello?

The vine is still found, of course. But not in sufficient quantities for a production of DOC. The climate has changed. No longer limpid, dry and generous enough to obtain a sweet wine of southern and Mediterranean types. The vine has lost ground in the valleys of Taggia and Bussana, where olive trees were favoured first and then flowers. The diseases of the vine in the nineteenth century decimated the ancient vines, despite the good resistance of the moscato wines. But there are some who still work with moscatello. And maybe, in the ancient and traditional way, the production is mixed together with that of other wine varieties. The aroma of moscatello, fruity and musky, comes from an elongated bunch of grapes, with round and golden berries, with the "piga" (stain) at the end.

The Caratata of 1531: a confirmation of the vines which were at that time more important than oil

In 1531 the Genoese government imposed a "caratata". What is this ? A territorial survey carried out on fiscal levels. Which gave a lot of information about the productive nature of the Genoese territories involved. And so information was important for the areas of Western Liguria. We know if they were lacking, self-sufficient or rich (enough to export) in oil, wine and fruit. If we observe today's management of the Western Liguria countryside, the results are surprising. In fact where now the olive tree triumphs, the vine flourished. The territories of Porto Maurizio, Taggia and Santo Stefano al Mare produce superabundant wine, so much so that it can be exported. Even the podesteria of Triora, with its capital at 30 km from the sea, is not far behind, with productive self-sufficiency. The contribution comes from the middle valley of Argentina and from the cultivation of vineyards in the mountains.

The sommelier of the Pope tells of the 16th century Ligurian wines

The first reasoned Italian wine guide. It is the Butler of Pope Paul III who speaks, Sante Lancerio. Paul III knew Liguria. In 1538 he had established the peace of Nice between Charles V and Francis I. Then, together with the emperor and Andrea Doria, he had stopped at Oneglia. And he had become acquainted with the lovely white wines. Thus the butler had written that the wine of the Riviera di Genoa was very good, delicate and pleasant in the summer. It was transported by sea and, raised from the boat, could be strengthened in taste. Taggia is remembered for her good moscatello. And so Oneglia. The white and the red wines, even if the whites were better. The Razzese di Bussana and Castellaro are named, which the Pope usually did not drink. Even if he could make a winter soup with them. Or in late summer "the season of the good figs", to accompany the fig, "great nourishment for the elderly". In 1522 Pope Adriano Florensz, the last non-Italian pope before John Paul II, had lunched in Liguria, during the journey of approach to Rome. Wines were generous: limpid white, rosé and black, sweet and dry, lovely and sour. The DOC varieties of the Riviera di Ponente, pivoted on the Vermentino and Pigato straw coloured wines, and on the Reds, such as the Ormeasco and the Rossese ...

The wine office and the gabelles tax in Sanremo: from 1550 to the 17th century

Sanremo wine market centre. Not to be believed, because today it is above all a flower market. In the sixteenth century there was the wine warehouse at the pier. The sales tax was applied. At the end of the sixteenth century there is talk of black wine and "brusque" wine. The latter is a young, homegrown wine, a bit unripe ... as can be read further on. But it matters: from Corsica, as much as the white and the brusque mazzacano of Naples. In the middle of the seventeenth century the division into white wine and black wine remained, but moscatello also stands out: a few barrels, sold at a high price. The wine of Sanremo and its surroundings is "good and saleable without any defect". More white or more black? A quick calculation, among the barrels traded in 1649: 104 were of black wine, more prized, perhaps on the type of today's rossese ... only 77 of white. The "health books" from the seventeenth century onwards often mention the wine trade as a key element in the Sanremo maritime economy.

Place names: traces of ancient viticulture From the sixteenth century onwards, the olive tree took away ground from the vineyard. The traces: in the names of the countryside ... it takes patience, to investigate the ancient land registers ... There are lands that recall the term of the "vineyard" today occupied by the olive tree or other crops. In less coastal areas, however, it is also possible to see a new spread of the vine. For example in the area of the Aroscia valley, beyond Pieve di Teco. One is in the Ormeasco area, a prized Ligurian dolcetto with speci fic characteristics. In fact, even if the climate of those almost mountainous territories is not always benevolent, there was always a wine development during the seventeenth century. In 1626 there were vineyards in the small town of Glori di Rezzo. In 1689 the Community of Rezzo watched over the harvest. The vine was often planted together with other crops, such as fig trees.

The seventeenth century: the vine resists the olive tree

During the seventeenth century the olive tree always found new space. The vine, however, was increasingly limited. There was a certain attention to quality. Moreover, following the continuous arrival of Mediterranean vines, the varieties increased and mixed. In 1639, the Genoese regulations on the sale of the State wine were revised. Bartolomeo Paschetti wrote a lot about Ligurian wine. He spoke of "white and thin", little nutritious, but light and pleasant, especially in summer. How not to think about today's vermentino and pigato? Also according to Paschetti there were three types of Ligurian wines: small, mediocre and great. The small ones are, unfortunately, we would say, the most widespread. Comparable to some of our contemporary home-grown Riviera wines they were "brusque and unripe", young wine, from a strict diet, for light and summery food. The mediocre wines can get closer to the great ones, but also to the summer ones. But there are the great ones, who save honour: still "the Moscatellos of Tabbia, the Amabili, and the Razzesi of the Cinque terre". Still the moscatello, the Amabili (or Schiacchetrà) and Rossese (but that of the Cinque Terre, which is white and not red like that of Ponente). Sweet and soft wines. Like the great French and Italian wines of today, they are destined mainly for export, to Rome or to Germany and Northern Europe.

The opinion of the erudite Ventimigliese Angelico Aprosio (1607-1681)

"Buon pro le faccia" ... so the friend Jacopo Lapi wrote in 1662 to the twenty-year-old student from Ventimiglia Angelico Aprosio. Who had spoken to his correspondents about the good life of the Ligurian West, where they eat good trout and drink good wine. Aprosio also speaks of Taggia moscatello, as of "apiano" wine (sweet as honey of bees). In addition he reveals that the even better moscatello, is to be found in Ventimiglia. A famous and valued wine, soft and delicate, better than the Amabili and the Rossesi of the Cinque Terre. The opinions of Aprosio, as he was in the Baroque taste, reach excessive and complex expressions in describing this wine, which therefore appears as an absolute value.

Angelico Aprosio

Famous scholar from Ventimiglia. He was an Augustinian friar, baptized as Ludovico Aprosio. He had become a friar against his parents' wishes and had toured Italy as a sacred orator. He returned to Ventimiglia around the middle of the seventeenth century. He maintained a constant correspondence with many Italian writers, even prominent ones. He wrote literary and moral works and founded the first public library in Liguria, which still exists in Ventimiglia. What is left of the founder's library is located in the Fondo Antico, which also preserves unique specimens.

The eighteenth century: crisis and confirmations

Grape thefts increased and so did the damage produced by the birds. The olive tree had now taken hold almost everywhere. The full maturation of the grapes was no longer waited for and so the result was wine of low grade, not full taste. On the one hand, it is said: "the peasants love the vineyard so much, that it seems they can not be without it". But then we harvest before time, in the search for income. Often it needs "cuts" with foreign wines, abundantly imported and anyway even drunk as the finest wines of the premises. Spain and southern France are the markets used.

Ligurian viticulture in the Napoleonic era

Wine also played a leading role in the Napoleonic administrative reorganization. In the early nineteenth century, the great prefects of western Liguria, Chabrol in Savona and Du Bouchage in Nice, were concerned with the production, commercial and social statistics of the territory. Chabrol has left us a complete picture of the Ligurian-Piedmontese world of his time. Together with the scholars of the time, he worried about the improvement of viticulture. Liguria belonged to the French Empire since 1805. The new government imported new vines from France, with the aim of improving the quality: while in Provence and in Spain viticulture had great development, in Liguria it was irremediably opposed by the development of the olive grove. .

For the territories of Porto Maurizio and Santo Stefano al Mare, closer to Sanremo, Chabrol describes cultivation techniques and product processing.Fundamental is the citation of the existence of "twenty species of grapes", which are mixed to make wine: this is the tradition of the Ligurian winemaker.

Some of the vines of the current DOC are already well defined: among the most productive we can mention the rossese and the dolcetti. And the best wine could be given with vermintino, rossese, pisano (another name of Rossese from Albenga) as well as barbarossa, a vine still cultivated in the Ligurian countryside.

Nineteenth-century wine and vines

Clearer news on nineteenth-century wine. Giorgio Gallesio, who published very interesting handouts related to the individual vines, was prominent. Vermentino and rossese are now known. The production of the Cinque Terre Rossese is however the more valued. Then we consider many other vines widespread in the Savonese and even more to the west, among which varieties still widespread or in any case already present in traditional wines. We speak of Barbarossa, of Tuscan origin, or of the Crovino or Trinchera di Nizza grapes, which, as black grapes, were used to correct white wines. Other information concerns the methods for wines and commercial decline of Ligurian wines, in comparison with French and Spanish competition and in the simultaneous expansion of olive growing.

The position of Agostino Bianchi is more defined who, in the early nineteenth century, living in Diano Castello, cited above all the value of the wine of his homeland. His historical observations on the favour enjoyed also in Liguria by French wines from the 18th century are very acute. And so too the quoting of the other imported wines. Vines appreciated in the Ligurian Ponente recall the moscatello, the nebbiolo and the "said ormeasco" dolcetto, as well as the Madeira. The last two are still very present in the province of Imperia. The ormeasco is indeed recognized at the DOC level.

Production in the nineteenth century

For the nineteenth century the documents are clear. It is easy to know what and how it was produced in Sanremo. And which wines were sold and imported in Liguria di Ponente.

But there were also moments of crisis, if not blocking, due to devastating diseases. Ancient vineyards were destroyed. Often the vineyard was started up again with grafting from American vines. Much has changed, between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Sanremo was still an emporium for wine, in the second half of the nineteenth century.

In 1848, 1080 hectolitres of wine were produced. At the beginning of 1871 the price of one hectolitre of wine

varied between 29 and 30 pounds .. At Sanremo in 1874 there were 100 hectares of vines. In the description of agricultural activity relating to 1879 there is talk of 500 hectolitres of production. 100 of fine wine only. 62 hectares of land were planted with vines. The grapes were pressed, without choosing the bunches. Put in barrels and left to ferment "in a tumultuous way". Then it is racked after two months, also for a good conservation. It is believed that Liguria is a land of great white wines ... but then red wine predominated. In fact the vines are indicated: Salerno, Rossese, Vermentino, Massarda, Barbarossa, Vasselle and others. The variety sought by the Ligurian winemaker was confirmed, to the detriment of the quality offered by the use of a unique vine. So much so that among the DOCs today only Rossese and Vermentino are found.

Which wines were sold and imported in Liguria di Ponente

In a document called "mercuriale" with the prices of foodstuffs for the territory of Oneglia in 1827 appear, among the wines, that of Spain of first quality, that of Languedoc, of Provence, of Sardinia and ours, whose DOC at that time, if one can say so, was called the Riviera Bianco. It obviously cost less than all the others.

In the current legal price of goods in Porto-Franco, issued in Genoa in 1856, the prices of the wines of Malaga, Marsala, Spain, France (in various qualities) and Sardinia are found.

The drama for the vine in the nineteenth century

Terrible diseases affected the Ligurian vineyards of the nineteenth century, first appearing in the middle of the century. In 1868 in Sanremo the disease was still active. It was one of the first factors in the disappearance of the vine, replaced by other crops. But the cure was discovered, which consisted of spreading sulphur on the vines. It is something that is still done today. The good results allowed a recovery of the vineyards, which the Ligurian farmers from Ponente particularly loved. Later, the deadly phyllossera appears. An international struggle was needed to combat this, based on the Berne Convention of 1881. In the Ponente Ligure there were signs of risk in 1883, then it was recommended not to bring cut branches from the Langhe, the great wine growing region. In the end, the plague arrived. In the lists of affected municipalities, dated to 1900 and 1907, there are all those from Western Liguria. A drama, also because before the illness had hit Provence and the winemakers of Liguria had had luck in supplying those regions left without wine. The disease was cured by curious methods, including the use of carbon disulfide. Everything useless. The rescue would be derived from grafts from American vines, which were immune. But much was lost. All this while Cuneo, Alba and Asti were able to protect themselves adequately.

Investigations and initiatives of the end of the nineteenth century

The signs of a revival. Despite the damage from diseases, agronomists and scholars were laying the foundations for the renewal of Ligurian enology. It is clear that the current development situation also depends on these ancient measures. A selection of vines is introduced to the West. In the Argentina valley the choices are limited: brachetto, crovaiolo, barbarosse and above all rossese and ormeasco, the latter suitable for high altitudes. The commitment of the Agrarian Committee is fundamental. They offer the organizational skills to limit and defeat diseases and to achieve crop renewal. The vines are limited and one tries to choose the path of quality. In an initiative of 1873, for example, attention was given to pigato grapes, which today represent a production of considerable value. The report of the Agricultural Commission of San Remo of 1873, traced in the State Archives, is extremely interesting. It is said that the best wines are the Muscat of Bussana and the rossese of Val Nervia. The growers had therefore to limit the vines and aim at the Rossese at medium-low altitudes and on the wine called "Triorese" at high altitudes. In this case, the reference is the already famous wine of Coio and Pornassio ... or the current DOC "ormeasco". Measurements

The great export measure in the Middle Ages was the metreta (about 100 litres). The barrel was the transport unit. But still in the sixteenth century it was calculated per minute in pints, half, third and quarter. The pint is equal to 0,953 litres. The mezzarola is 91, 488 litres, ie two barrels of 48 pints each.

In the eighteenth century, in Porto Maurizio a somata was in vogue divided into two barrels of 40 amoles for one or five vine rubles of 8 amoles each. In wholesale contracts, it also reached 10 barrels at a time. The measures were not so different from those of Sanremo.

A somata corresponds to 80-81 litres; a barrel to 40-41 litres, an amola 1-1,025 litres and the nearest measurement to the old pint. The wine ruble 8 litres and the cinque somatas are 400 litres

The trading system is based on the mezzarola divided into two barrels, ie 180 amoles, corresponding to 157.94-159 litres of wine.

Testimonials

A.GIUSTINIANI, Castigatissimi annali with their exhaustive table of the excellent and most illustrious Republic of Genoa, Genoa, 1537. "and this whole stretch (zone of Taggia and plain up to Santo Stefano ed) and endowed with large quantities of vineyards, which produce moscatello wine of such value and quality, which is reputed not to be inferior to the Candiote malvasia and to the Ciprioti dei Grechi wines of Naples ".

F.MARCALDI, Narrations of the state of the Republic of Genoa, 1588. "The Riviera di Ponente is full of fruits, wines, oils".

GASPARE ENTE, Deliciae Italiae ..., Cologne, 1608. Taggia "illustrious castle for Apiano wine (sweet note like honey from bees), indeed of low production, but famous for its name, for the generosity of the juice and which does not yield to the Malvatico di Creta or to the wine of Cyprus, or to any other, Italian or foreigner ".

JO DOMENICO PERI, Merchant Osiano main industries of the city of Genoa, 1682. "The wines that are born in the country are very good, but above all the Taggia moscatelli".

FILIPPO CASONI, Short description of Liguria and the city of Genoa, about 1700 .. "... Taggia, with its hills famous for the Muscat that is born there ... in addition to the wine of so much excellence and beyond the very perfect oil ...

Good wines are born in the province, among which the moscatos of Taggia are reputed to be excellent and the lovable and for a certain fragrance similar to that given by drugs indicated to 'liqueurs, with which they are mixed

The wine that in abundance originates in Liguria is not sufficient for the inhabitants, in order to dispose of forastieri wines in the State of Genoa, particularly those of Languedoc, Corsica, Tuscany, the Kingdom of Naples, which are trans- ported by sea and light wines and desserts that are brought to Genoa from the Monferrato by land.

G.BRACELLI-F.BIONDO,

Description of Liguria (1543). "So five miles away is a castle, two miles away from the sea, called Tabia, well known for good wines, which are made there, so that the Muscatelli of this place do not give in to those of Cyprus or Heraklion. , nor the Falerni ".

Then comes Diano, a city, almost 2 miles away from the sea, and full of olive groves and vineyards ....

G.BOTERO, Liguria in the "Universal Relations 1593). "Its support (of Liguria ed) depends mainly on citrus fruits, fruits, all kinds, excellent wines (but not many), maxims in Tabia and the Cinqueterre".

Testimonies taken from M.QUAINI, The knowledge of the Ligurian territory between the Middle Ages and the Modern Age, Genoa, 1986.

Archival sources.

State Archive of Imperia, section of the State Archives of San Remo.

Archive of the Municipality of San Remo

Series II, 87-150, Wine Office in San Remo since 1550.

Series II, 94-178, Book of Wine Foundations in the Community of San Remo, 1649.

Series III, box 10, fasc.55; box 13, fasc.71.

State Archive of Imperia

Provincial Fund of Imperia, f.292, 299.

Bibliography

F.ACCAME, S.TORRE, V.PRONZATI, The great

book of Ligurian cuisines. The history, the recipes, the wines, Genoa 1994

L.BALLETTO, Wine at Ventimiglia in the mid-thirteenth century in "Studies in memory of Federigo Melis", Naples, 1978, pp.447-454.

EADEM, Ventimiglia in the thirteenth century through the acts of Giovanni di Amandolesio in "Rivista di Studi Ligu- ri", L, 1984, p.42.

M.D.BIANCHI, Legal sources of the castle of Diano and the unpublished writings of Agostino Bianchi under the inspector of the forests for the department of Montenotte during the Napoleonic period, Diano Marina, 1980.

N.CALVINI - A.SARCHI, The Principality of Villaregi, San Remo, 1981.

N.CALVINI, City of Taggia. Municipal Statutes of 1381, Taggia, 1982.

N. CALVINI, Municipal Statutes of San Remo, San Remo, 1983.

N. CALVINI, The Chronicle of Calvi. The Convent of the PP.Domenicani and the city of Taggia from 1460 to 1623, Taggia, 1982.

L.L.CALZAMIGLIA, The wine of Colombo in "Il mensabò Imperiese", VII, 1, 1989, pp.5-8.

HABROL DE VOLVIC, Statistics of the Department of Montenotte, Paris, 1824, Italian edition edited by G.ASSERETO, Savona, 1994.E MORO, Porto Maurizio in the eighteenth century, Imperium, 1978.

B.DURANTE, In search of a lost wine: the "moscatello" of the Western Liguria in "La Regione Luria", 10, 1981, p.84-86.

B.DURANTE, Biblioteca Aprosiana, scholarly debates and academic projects between 1650-1700 in "Apreassiana", n.s., VIII, 2000, pp. 41-42.

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M.QUAINI, For the history of the agricultural landscape in Liguria, Savona, 1973.

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P.RAIMONDI, Wines of Liguria, Genoa, 1976.

Pigato DOC Pigato

Here is all nature and all the taste of Western Liguria. It is the ideal companion, together with Vermentino, for a tasty evening where fish is the protagonist. Lunch is announced, keeps company and accompanies a summer chat under the pergola, while a breeze revives from the sea.

HISTORY

n 1873 the District Agrian Commission had realized that the excessive number of vines used damaged Ligurian wine production. A comparison was made to identify those most suited to regional cultivation. 20 varieties of black grapes were grown and 16 of white grapes. Among the latter the choice as the most suitable vine for large areas of Liguria was that of the Pigato di Albenga. The focus on this product was officially born.

It must also be said that in Loano, Pietra Ligure and Finale this vine was confused with Vermentino.

Actually, the grape variety is part of the complex reality present in western Liguria, probably for loans and imports of secular scope. It is part of the "water-like" white wines, which pleasantly accompany the whole meal.

The formation of the vine includes four components. The same nomenclature (present the so-called "Grecanico"), suggests that it can find us in front of a precise line of historical importation. According to tradition, it would therefore be part of the Greek vines that arrived in Liguria (see the verdea). Anyhow

Grecanic grape varieties are also found in Sicily (DOC Contessa Entellina, Menfi, Santa Margherita del Belice). The second dimension of the historical, all-Mediterranean relationship between Liguria and Sicily should therefore be evaluated.

The name of "pigato" probably derives from the typical stain that appears on the grape (dialectal "pigau", the spot is the "piga").

The Ormeasco of Pornassio or Pornassio D.O.C. is recognized with D.D. 16 September 2003. Recognition of the designation of controlled origin of wines

«Pornassio» or «Ormeasco di Pornassio» and subsequently amended by decree dated 27 July 2004 Adjusted to the directorial decree of 16 September 2003 for recognition of the designation of controlled origin of wine

«Pornassio» or «Ormeasco di Pornassio».

Characteristics

Production area: prevalence for Albenganese, from the plain to the middle of the Arroscia valley, where 40% of the product is concentrated. Noteworthy productions in Ortovero, Bastia and Salea, where the "Pigato Festival" takes place in September.

Type: quiet white for a meal.

Grape variety: The vine of the pigato is actually made up of four different species: greek, greek, aminea gemina, favorita, garganega. It is produced from grapes grown at least 95% Pigato. Maximum allowed yield of the grapes, 110 Q.li per hectare.

Alcohol content: Alcohol 11%.

Colour: Straw yellow colour more or less loaded.

Perfume: The perfume is characteristic, generally intense and persistent, slightly aromatic with senses that vary from area to area, reminiscent of white fish, apple, almond and flowers such as broom and aromatic herbs (sometimes, inland).

Taste: Flavour is dry but soft, full, savoury, with good body and balanced, continuous with a slightly bitterish background, almond

Optimum age: It should be drunk preferably within 2 years

from the harvest

Conservation: It should be stored lying in the cellar at a temperature of 12-14 °.

Serving temperature: Service temperature is 8 -10 °.

Glass: For a quiet white with a meal or slender white to better grasp the aroma.

Serving suggestions: Appetizers, second courses based on seafood with aromatic herbs and taggiasche olives, turnip tops and other dishes of national and foreign cuisine. Pansotti, ravioli, baked sea bass, trenette al pesto Mushroom appetizers. It is traditionally considered a wine that accompanies the fish of the western Ligurian Riviera in a delightful way, exalting itself with sea bass, prized crustaceans and molluscs. Easily accompanies light meals typical of the hilly hinterland.

Disciplinary Art. 1

The protected denomination of origin Riviera Ligure di Ponente accompanied by one of the specifications provided for in this product specification is reserved for white, red and rosé wines which meet the following conditions and requirements:

Art 2

L: a controlled denomination of origin Riviera Ligure di Ponente accompanied by the indication of one of the following Pigato, V ermentino, Rossese vines and is reserved for wines obtained from grapes from vineyards made up of at least 95% of the corresponding vines.

Grapes of a similar colour to the non-aromatic vines recommended or authorized in the provinces of Genoa, Savona and Imperia present in the vineyards up to a maximum of 5% can contribute, alone or jointly to the production of each of the wines indicated above,

The protected denomination of origin Riviera Ligure di Ponente with the specification 'Ormeasco' is reserved for rosé or red wine obtained from vineyards made of at least 95% of the Dolcetto vine.

The red berried grapes of

the non-aromatic vines recommended or authorized in the province of Imperia present in the vineyards up to a maximum of 5% can contribute to the production of this wine

The Pigato, Vermentino, Rossese wines of the denomination of controlled origin Riviera Ligure di Ponente

 

can be designated with the following geographical sub-denominators:

Riviera dei Fiori, Albenga or Albenganese Finale or Finalese

if exclusively obtained from grapes produced in the respective zones delimited in the following article 3

The Ormeasco wine of the denomination of origin controlled Riviera Ligure di Ponente can be designated with the geographical sub-denominator Riviera dei fiori if exclusively obtained from grapes produced in the corresponding area delimited in the following article 3

All the additional specifications of the denomination of controlled origin Riviera Ligure di Ponente must be indicated on the label with letters of a size not higher than those used to indicate the designation of origin itself.

Persons with vineyards registered in the Register of vineyards for the production of the DOC Rossese di Dolceacqua or Dolceacqua recognized according to the Decree of the President of the Republic 28.01.72 may, alternatively, make a declaration of production of the grapes provided for by the Article 11 of the Decree of the President of the Republic of 12.07.63 nr. 930, to claim the production of the Rossese wine of the denomination of controlled origin Riviera Ligure di Ponente if the grapes meet the requirements set forth in this product specification.

Art. 3

The Vermentino wine production area of the denomination of controlled origin Riviera Ligure di Ponente includes the aforementioned territories of the provinces of Imperia, Savona and Genoa.

The production area of the Pigato and Rossese wines of the protected denomination of origin Riviera Ligure di Ponente includes the aforementioned territories of the provinces of Savona and Imperia:

In the province of Imperia throughout their territory the municipalities of: Airole, Apricale, Aquila d'Arroscia, Armo, Aurigo, Badalucco, Baiardo, Bordighera, Borghetto d'Arroscia, Borgomaro, Camporosso, Caravonica, Carpasio, Castellaro, Castelvittorio , Ceriana, Cervo, Chiusanico, Chiusavecchia, Cipressa, Civezza, Costa- rainera, Diano Aretino, Diano Castello, Diano Mariina, Diano San Pietro, Dolceacqua, Dolcedo, Imperia, Isolabona, Lucinasco, Molini di Triora, Moltalto Li- gure , Montegrosso Pian Latte, Olivetta San Michele, Ospedaletti, Perinaldo, Pietrabruna, Pieve di Teco, Pi- ana, Pompeiana, Pontedassio, Prela ', Ranzo, Rezzo, Riva Ligure, Rocchetta Nervina, San Bartolomeo al Mare, San Biagio della Cima, San Lorenzo al Mare, Sanremo, Santo Stefano al Mare, Seborga, Soldano, Taggia, Terzorio, Vallebona, Vallecrosia, Vasia, Venegiglia, Vessalico, Villa Faraldi and part of the territory of the municipalities of Cosio d'Arroscia, Mendatica, Pornas- sio and Triora (bordered to the north by the Alps ridge );

In the province of Savona throughout their territory the municipalities of: Alassio, Albenga, Albisola Superiore, Albis- sole Marina, Andora, Arnasco, Balestrino, Bergeggi, Boissano, Borghetto Santo Spirito, Borgio Verezzi, Casanova Lerrone, Castelbianco, Celle Ligure, Ciar- rano sul Neva, Erli, Finale Ligure, Garlen- da, Giustenice, Laigueglia, Loano, Magliolo, Nasino, Noli, Onzo, Orco Feglino, Ortovero, Pietra Ligure, Quiliano, Rialto, Savona, Spotorno, Stella , Stellanel, Testico, Toirano, Tovo San Giacomo, Vado Ligure, Varazze, Vendone, Vezzi Portio, Villanova d'Albenga, Zuccarello and part of the territory of the municipalities of Calice Ligure and Castelvecchio di Rocca Barbena (bordered to the north by the Apennine ridge );

In the province of Genoa throughout their territory the muncipalities of

Arenzano and Cogoleto

The production area of the Ligurian Riviera di Ponente Ormeasco protected denomination of origin includes the entire territory of the following municipalities in the province of Imperia: Armo, Cosio d'arroscia, Mendati- ca, Montegrosso Pian Latte, Pieve di Teco, Pornassio, Rezzo, Molini di Triora, Carpasio, Borgomaro, Pigna, Castelvittorio, Aurigo, Badalucco, Triora, Montalto Ligure, Ranzo, Borghetto d'Arroscia, Vessalico, Acquila d'Arroscia.

The production area of ​​the denomination of controlled origin Riviera Ligure di Ponente entitled to the sub-denomination Riviera dei Fiori includes in the province of Imperia the entire territory of the following municipalities: Airole, Apricale, Aquila d'Arroscia, Armo, Aurigo, Badalucco, Baiardo, Bordighera, Borghetto d'Arroscia, Borgomaro, Camporosso, Caravonica, Carpasio, Castellaro, Castelvittorio, Ceriana, Cerro, Cesio, Chiusanico, Chiusavecchia, Cipressa, Cizzazza, Costarainera, Diano Aretino, Diano Castello, Diano Marina, Diano San Pietro, Dolceacqua, Dolcedo, Imperia, Isolabona, Lucinasco, Molini di Triora, Moltalto Ligure, Montegrosso Pian Latte, Olivetta San Michele, Ospedaletti, Perinaldo, Pietrabruna, Pieve di Teco, Pigna, Pompeiana, Pontedassio, Pre- ', Ranzo, Rezzo, Riva Ligure, Rocchetta Nervina, San Bartolomeo al Mare, San Biagio della Cima, San Lorenzo al Mare, Sanremo, Santo Stefano al Mare, Seborga, Soldano, Taggia, Terzorio, Vallebona, Vallecrosia, Vas ia, Ventimiglia, Vessalico, Villa Faraldi and part of the territory of the municipalities of Cosio d'Arroscia, Mendatica, Pornassio and Triora (bordered to the north by the mountain ridge);

The production area of the denomination of controlled origin Riviera Ligure di Ponente, which has the right to the Albenganese sub-denomination, includes in the province of Savona the entire territory of the following municipalities: Alassio, Albenga, Andora, Arnasco, Casano- va Lerrone, Castelbianco, Ceriale, Cisano sul Neva, Erli, Garlenda, Laigueglia, Nasino, Onzo, Ortovero, Stellanello, Testico, Vendone, Villanova d'Albenga, Zuccarello and part of the territory of Castel- vecchio di Rocca Barbena (delimited to the north by Appenninico area);

The production area of the denomination of controlled origin Riviera Ligure di Ponente entitled to the sub-denomination Finalese includes in the province of Savona the entire territory of the following municipalities: Balestrino, Boissano, Borghetto Santo Spirito, Borgio Verezzi, Finale Ligure, Giustenice , Loano, Magliolo, Noli, Orco Feglino, Pietra Ligure, Rialto, Toirano, Tovo San Giacomo, Vezzi Portio, and part of the territory of the municipalities of Calice Ligure (bordered to the north by the Apennine ridge);

Art. 4

The environmental and cultivation conditions of the vineyards dedicated to the production of wines as per art. 1 must

be the traditional ones of the area and, in any case, only those suited to give the grapes and the derived wine the specific characteristics of quality. The planting procedures, the rearing forms and the pruning systems must be those generally used and in any case suitable not to modify the characteristics of the grapes and wine.

All forcing practices are forbidden

The maximum yield of grapes allowed for the production of wines as per art. 1, must not exceed 110 kg per hectare of vineyard in specialized cultivation for Pigato and Vermentino white wines and at 90 quintals per hectare of vineyard in specialized cultivation for Ormeasco and Rossese red wines.

Without prejudice to the maximum limit indicated above, the yield for the vineyard in promiscuous cultivation must be calculated with respect to the specialized one, in relation to the actual surface covered by the vine. To this extent, even in exceptionally favourable years, the yield will have to be reported through careful selection of the grapes, provided that the production does not exceed 20% of the maximum limit.

The maximum yield of the grapes in wine must not exceed 70% for all Riviera Ligure di Po- nente wines.

If the grape-wine yield exceeds the limit indicated above, the surplus will not be entitled to the designation of controlled origin.

The Liguria Region, every year, before the endorsement, with its own decree, after hearing the professional organiza- tions of the category and taking into account the environmental and cultivation conditions, can fix maximum productions per hectare lower than those established by the present disciplinary- it also regulates production with reference to individual geographic areas or types of wine, informing the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and the national committee for the protection of the names of origin of the wines.

Art.5

Wine-making operations must be carried out within the area of production of wine with a protected designation of origin Riviera Ligura di Ponente delimited in art. 3. However, taking into

account traditional situations, it is allowed that these operations are carried out throughout the territory of the municipalities, even if only partially included in the demarcated area.

The grapes destined for wine-making must be subjected to a preliminary selection in order to ensure the wine an overall minimum natural alcohol content of 10.5 degrees for Ormeasco, Pigato, Rossese and Vermentino wines.

In wine-making, only the loyal and constant oenological practices, traditional in the area, which are able to give the wines their particular characteristics are allowed.

The Riviera Ligure di Ponente Ormeasco wine can be obtained with the traditional partial white fi nishment which gives it a rosy colour and can, in this case, bear the traditional speci fi cation Sciac-Trà which distinguishes this type.

Art. 6

The wines referred to in art. 1 when released for consumption, must meet the following characteristics:

Riviera di Ponente Ormeasco Colour: ruby red, alive

Odour: vinous, pleasant, characteristic

Taste: dry, pleasant, slightly bitter, discreet body

Minimum total alcohol content: 11 Minimum total acidity: 5 per thousand

Minimum net dry extract: 22 per thousand

Riviera di Ponente Ormeasco Sciac-Trà Color: coral pink

Odour: vinous, pleasant, characteristic Taste: dry, pleasant

Minimum net dry extract: 18 per thousand

Riviera Ligure di Ponente Pigato

Colour: straw yellow more or less loaded

Odour: intense, characteristic, slightly aromatic Taste: dry, full, slightly bitterish and taste of almonds

Minimum net dry extract: 16 per thousand

Riviera Ligure di Ponente Rossese Colour: light ruby red

Odour: delicate, characteristic, vinous

Taste: dry, delicate, soft, slightly bitter. Overall minimum alcohol content: 11 Minimum total acidity: 5 per thousand

Minimum net dry extract: 20 per thousand

Riviera di Ponente Vermentino Color: straw-coloured

Odour: delicate, characteristic, fruity

Taste: dry, fresh, harmonious, delicately fruity

It is the faculty of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry with its own decree, to modify the minimum limits indicated for total acidity and net dry extract for the wines mentioned above.

Art. 7

The Riviera Ligure di Ponente Ormeasco wine deriving from grapes having a minimum alcoholic alcohol content of 12 and released for consumption with a minimum total alcohol content of 12.5, can have the additional superior qualification. The Riviera Ligure di Ponente Ormeasco Superiore wine can not be released for consumption before November 1st of the year following that of the harvest.

Art.8

To the denomination of which to the art. 1 the addition of any qualification other than that provided for in the present product specification is forbidden, including the adjectives 'Extra', 'Fine', 'Selected', 'Reserve'.

The use of indications that refer to company names or private trademarks is allowed, provided they do not have a laudatory meaning and are not such as to mislead the purchaser. Without prejudice to the use of company names, the use of other indications, geographies and place names that make reference to municipalities, hamlets, areas, estates, zones and locations included in the area delimited in the previous

art.3

Bottles or other containers with a capacity not exceeding 5 litres, containing Riviera Ligure di Ponente wines as per this specification, in view of sale must also be, as far as packaging and presentation are concerned, consonant with the traditional characterisctics of a fine wine.

On bottles or other containers containing wines from the Riviera Ligure di Ponente area, you can find an indication of the year of production of the grapes, provided they can be documented. This is mandatory for wines designated in accordance with art. 7 of this discipline and those put on the market with one of the sub-divisions referred to in art. 3

Art. 9

Anyone who produces, sells, or otherwise distributes for consumption under the designation of origin Riviera Ligure di Ponente wine that does not meet the conditions and requirements laid down by this specification, is punished pursuant to Article. 28 of the Decree of the President of the Republic July 12, 1963 nr. 930

The vine

The first news on Pigato cultivation dates back to the end of the last century, when the work of the Provincial Ampelification Commissions showed that the vine was present in the district of Porto Maurizio (1881b) and the Genovesato (1883), here with reference to a Pigà and a Vermentino Pigato, and in fact this is what emerged from a comparative ampelografic survey carried out on clones of the two vines, with the addition of the Favorita of Piedmont, in Ligurian and Piedmontese cultural environments (SCHNEIDER and MANNINI, 1990).

While recognizing the characteristic examined genotypes, these were not decisive for the purpose of distinguishing between separate cultivations. The same charac- ter recognized by Pigato to have rough spots on the surface of the grape at maturity (from which the vine has drawn its name) does not seem constant in any culture environment, nor its exclusive prerogative, often also appearing on the Vermentino and sometimes on the Favorita.

For the ampelographic description of Pigato and the cultural aspects, please refer to Vermentino.

It should be added, however, that the writings of the 1960s give a distinct description of 'Pigato' (CARLONE, 1963a) and indicate it as cultivated on a surface of about 20% in the province of Savona and 15% in that of Genoa, considering it always to be very distinct from Vermentino (DALMASSO and OIL 1964).

Currently Pigato falls within the Ligurian Riviera di Ponente Pigato appellation of origin with a surface of 20 registered in the province of Imperia and 65 ha in the province of Savona. The 1991 production of

4,400 hl, represents over a quarter of Liguria DOC wine

Extract from Guidelines for Ligurian viticulture, published by Liguria Region, Technical Assistance Service and Experimentation in Agriculture Authors A. Schneider, F. Mannini, N. Argamante

Rossese di Dolceacqua DOC the Dolceacqua

First DOC of the Ligurian Ponente (1972!). An unforgettable red ... a wine that you love to drink, which accompanies a robust meal with Mediterranean pleasantness. A wine where the sun of the hinterland is found as much as the sea breeze that goes back to the valleys of the Ventimiglia area

Rossese or "Razzese" ... Liguria par excellence. In the sixteenth century, De Franchi, in a fine poem, says that maybe not even in Paradise you can find a wine like Rossese. The suspicion is that he referred to the Rossese of the Cinque Terre, which however is a white wine.

In reality, the Rossese grape seems to be one of the most typical of Liguria and perhaps autochthonous. In any case, its presence on the territory dates back to times that are not fully identifiable. The bearing of the plant brings to mind the Provencal vineyard. Its importation from Southern France seems likely but is not documentedIt may seem likely. In any case

Il Gallesio, at the beginning of the 19th century, talks about Rossese as one of the two most widespread vines in Ligu-

ria. He focuses particularly on the Rossese of the Cinqueterre, which however is white wine. The Rossese di Dolceacqua is instead a red, which is defined as a product of "black grapes ... particular grapes from which a wine to be savoured, dry which has the analogy with the wine of Nice".

Rossese di Dolceacqua - Characteristics Rosseseofi Dolceacqua or Dolceacqua, D.O.C. is recognized by Presidential Decree of 28.01.1972 G.U. 05/15/1972

Production area: valleys of Ventimiglia, ending with Val Nervia (Dolceacqua, Camporosso) and val Verbone (San Biagio della Cima, Soldano). You can also find vines from the uncommon white rossese.

Type: red for meal.

Grape variety: Rossese, minimum 95%. The maximum allowed yield of the grapes is 90 Q.li per hectare.

Alcohol content: Alcohol is 12% for Dolceacqua and 13% for Dolceacqua superiore, which can be placed on the market after aging for at least 12 months.

Colour: When young it has a more or less intense ruby red colour in relation to the production area, garnet with sometimes orange reflections, both the superior and the normal if aged.

Perfume:

Taste: The vinous, intense and floral young bouquet. with the refinement it becomes broader, fine with scents of dried rose, berries, aromatic herbs and spices. The taste is dry, quite soft, warm, interesting , slightly tannic when young; harmonious with a pleasantly bitter end with an appropriate refining.

Optimum age: It should be drunk from 2 to 3 years from the date of harvest. If Dolceacqua superiore is over 2-5 years old and beyond (but only the best vintages, like 1988 or the like).

Conservation: It must be kept in the cellar, lying down at a temperature between 12 ° and

14° C

Serving temperature: The serving temperature is 18 ° -19 ° C.

Glass: for red in the case of Dolceacqua, a awine glass or otherwise a slender glass for the Dolceacqua superiore.

Accompaniment: Stoccafisso alla ligure (with young Dolceacqua). First courses with meat sauces (for Dolceacqua). Game, meat with mushrooms, game stew and medium-aged cheeses (for the superior Dolceaqua). The combination with the pastoral cheeses of the upper Val Nervia (Pigna area, Buggio-Langan) is noteworthy. Stewed guinea fowl with mushroom cream. Ligurian Roast rabbit . Chicken cacciatore. The most "classic" combination in Val Nervia is with goat and beans or with stewed leg of lamb. In this case, the pastoral tradition of internal Liguria finds its most engrossing enological accompaniment.

The controlled denomination of origin Rossese of Dolceacqua or Dolceacqua is reserved for red wine that meets the conditions and requirements established in this product specification

The Rossese wine of Dolceacqua or Dolceacqua must be obtained from the grapes from the vineyards of the Rossese vine. Non-aromatic red grapes coming from vines present in the vineyards up to a maximum of 5% can contribute to the production of the said wine;

The production area of the Rossese wine of Dolceacqua or Dolceacqua includes all the territories of the municipalities of Dolceacqua, Apricale, Baiardo, Camporosso, Ca stelvittorio, Isolabona, Perinaldo, Pigna, Rocchetta Nervina, San Biagio della Cima and Soldano, as well as the frazione of Vallecrosia Alta of the Municipality of Vallecrosia, and that of Mortola Superiore, S. Bartolomeo-Carletti, Ville, Calandri, S. Lorenzo, S. Bernardo, Sant'Antonio, Sealza, Villatella, Calvo-S.Pancrazio, Torri, Verrandi and Calandria di Trucco of the Municipality of Ventimiglia, to that part of the territory of the municipality of Vallebona which is located on the right bank of the Borghetto stream.

The environmental and cultivation conditions of the vineyards dedicated to the production of the Rossese Dolceacqua or Dolceacqua wine must be the traditional ones of the area and, in any case, suitable for conferring the specific quality characteristics to the grapes and wine deriving from them. They are therefore to be considered suitable for the purposes of registration in the register provided for by art. 10 of Presidential Decree 12 July 1963 n. 930, only the vineyards located in well exposed land, at altitudes not exceeding 600 meters, with the exception of those located in the valley bottom.

Planting distances, forms of rearing and pruning systems must be those generally used or in any case suitable for not modifying the characteristics of the grapes and the wines.

All forcing practices are forbidden. The maximum yield of grapes allowed for the production of Rossese of Dolceacqua or Dolceacqua wine must not exceed the quintals of 90 per hectare of specialized cultivation.

Without prejudice to the maximum limit indicated above, the yield per hectare of vineyard in promiscuous cultivation must be calculated, in comparison to the specialized one, in relation to the actual surface covered by the vine. To this extent, even in exceptionally favourable years, the yield will have to be reported through careful selection of the grapes, provided that the production does not exceed 20% of the maximum limit.

The maximum yield of the grapes in wine must not exceed 70%

Wine-making operations must be carried out within the production area delimited in the previous article 3.

However, taking into account traditional production situations, it is permissible for such operations to be carried out within the territory of the municipalities even if only partially included in the demarcated area.

The grapes destined for wine-making must ensure that the Rossese of Dolceacqua or Dolceacqua wine has a minimum natural alcohol content of

11.5

In wine-making, only the constant local winemaking practices of the area are permitted to give the wine its particular characteristics.

The Rossese wine of Dolceacqua or Dolceacqua, when released for consumption, must meet the following characteristics:

Colour: ruby red, garnet if aged Odour: winy intense, but delicate, characteristic Flavour: soft, aromatic, warm

Overall minimum alcohol content: 12

Minimum total acidity: 4.5 per thousand Minimum net dry extract: 23 per thousand

It is the faculty of the Minister for Agriculture and Forests, with its own decree, who modify the minimum limits indicated above for total acidity and net dry extract.

The Rossese wine of Dolceacqua or Dolceacqua, derived from grapes having a minimum natural alcohol content of 12.5 and released for consumption with an overall alcohol content of at least 13, may permit the additional 'superior' qualification.

The Rossese wine of Dolceacqua or Dolceacqua superiore can not be released for consumption before November 1 of the year following that of the grape harvest

To the designation referred to in Article 1, the addition of any qualification other than that provided for in this specification, including the adjectives 'extra', 'fine', 'selected', 'selected' and similar is forbidden

On bottles or other containers containing Rosese wine from Dolceacqua or Dolceacqua can find the indication of the year of production of the grapes, provided they are truthful and documentable.

However, the use of indications that refer to names, company names and private brands that do not have a laudatory meaning and that are not likely to mislead the purchaser is permitted.

The use of geographical and toponymical indications that refer to municipalities, hamlets, areas, farms, areas and localities included in the area delimited by the preceding article 3 is also permitted.

Anyone who produces, sells, or in any case distributes for consumption under the controlled designation of origin Rossese of Dolceacqua or Dolceacqua wines that do not meet the conditions and requirements established by the present production disciplinary, will be punished in accordance with article 28 of the dpr 12 July 1963 nr. 930.

The historical information about Rossese, now cultivated in Dolceacqua, is often complicated by the presence in Liguria (and in the near Piedmont) of other Rossesi with a more important cultural importance. A white-fruited Rossese, or at least slightly rosé, was cultivated in Mondovì (DI RO-VASENDA, 1877). A white Rossese (or rather Roxeise) was considered the typical vine of Liguria Oriendale and was renowned since the Renaissance for the wines that were obtained (GALLESIO, 1839). A red-fruited Rossese was present in the surroundings of Ivrea (DI ROVASENDA, 1877). The Rossese nero (or rather 'nericcio', as defined by the Di Rovasenda) took on cultural importance in more recent times than the white Rossese, but it seems nevertheless to have been already established in the current main crop area near Ventimiglia and San Remo at least for a century and a half (GALLESIO, 1839). Dalmasso and Mariano (1963) indicate the presence of a different Rossese with coloured fruit (which they do not describe) in the province of Savona, and this would be confirmed by the Rossese di Ventimiglia distinction from the Campo- church one that was jointly cultivated in the 60s on about 20% of the surface area of ​​the Tyrrhenian side of the province of Savona (DALMASSO and DELL'OLIO, 1964).

The Rossese here described, with coloured fruit, is characterized by a certain morphological heterogeneity especially in the coloration of shoots and grapes, in the size of clusters and leaves, as well as in the complexity of the latter. This phenotypic heterogeneity depends on numerous factors, among which a genetic component can not be excluded

Main ampelographic characters

Buds before flowering: open apex, fluffy, greenish yellow with more or less intensely pink edges; young curved leaves from the 1st to the 3rd, of a yellowish or whitish green colour (due to the presence of tomentum), more or less intensely decorated; young leaves from the 4th to the 6th unfolded, yellowish green with coppery hints and sometimes a copper petiolar point; the 4th is superiorly arachnoid, inferiorly very fluffy; the anthocyanin colour of the shoot is of medium or low intensity depending on the biotype.

Herbaceous shoot: curved apical section, circular section and angular contour, of green colour in the ventral part, red streaked on the dorsal, very developed tendrils of yellow colour with coppery nuances

Inflorescence: conical, branched with apical ends of the main copper rims.

Adult leaf: medium, medium-large or large depending on the clones, pentagonalem eptalobata (but not rarely with more than seven lobes); U + V petiolar sinus, narrow or closed with slightly overlapping edges often with a tooth; lateral, lyre-shaped sinuses with the edges overlapping the upper, the lower U; flap of medium thickness, with a superficial bone and main ribs often bent, wavy margins of green colour with base of the main pink ribs; very pronounced teeth with concave or concave / convex margins; lower page with fluffy flap and ribs from bristly to velvety (ie with very abundant short tomentum) depending on the clones (fi gure to the side), long petiole, from almost glabrous to abundantly secretive depending on the clones, green shaded rose

Bunch at maturity: medium-sized or medium-large, pyramidal with 1-2 wings, or more often branched with many well-developed or long-pedulating wings; more or less loose depending on the incidence of the casting; long and sturdy peduncle, of a shaded green color of rose, lilified in the first part; medium to medium-small acid, short ellipsoidal, with medium-thick skin, medium pruinose, of blue-black violet colour; medium-small vinacicoli, in number of 1 to 4 per berry (more frequently 2).

Woody shoot: light hazelnut color

Distinctive characteristics: fluffy bud, more or less intensely coppery; eptalobata leaf or with more than seven lobes, with a smooth surface and often kneed ribs, inferior veins more or less velvety, very pronounced teeth; sparse bunch, often branched with many wings, short ellipsoidal berry, blue-black violet

Cultural aspects

The accentuated polymorphism that this cultivation presents from the morphological point of view also concerns the agronomic and production characteristics. There are therefore biotypes characterized by considerable vegetative vigour and fertility, others with contained vigour and productivity. Even the colour of the fruit does not seem very uniform, but on the contrary, it is quite variable. Interactions between genetic, climatic and viral factors probably contribute to accentuating these phenomena.

The vine has a very marked base fertility and therefore prefers a short pruning. However, the production is strongly influenced by often green phenomena of colatura and grape buds, of the bunches. As far as multiplication by grafting is concerned, it is opportune to point out a phenomenon of incompatibility between Rosese and Kober 5 BB clone MIK9, to which only the vigorous biotypes are exceptions.

Problems linked to anomalies in the fruiting and incompatibility of grafting can be considered in relation to the high diffusion of viral diseases, with particular reference to curly wood

Extract from Guidelines for Ligurian vitiviniculture published by Liguria Region Technical Assistance Service and Experimentation in Agriculture Authors

A. Schneider, F. Mannini, N. Argamante

Rossese DOC the Rossese

Riviera Ligure di Ponente Rossese (also known as Rosese of Campochiesa or Riviera dei Fiori, Alben- ganese or Finalese).

Drinking Rossese is to understand the spirit of the entire Ligurian region of Ponente. A generous wine, precious in its own way ... you can find it in the valleys, in the small sunny plains, feel the mountain as much as the sea ... it's a travel companion, always gives the answers you want, along with very varied and tasty dishes. Also rustic, like certain cheeses from the remote hinterland.

We move away from the Ventimiglia area and we still meet the Rossese ... the ability to harmonize with the territory, with the characteristics of the territory, is noteworthy. Therefore, the possibility of dealing with an absolutely typical grape variety from the region of Western Liguria remains unresolved. The relationship with the south of France is undoubtedly remarkable, also in relation to the relationship with grapes and production techniques. In this sense, the historical relationship between Liguria di Ponente and Provence is important. Hence an Angevin, Guelph and aggressive expansionist impulse was established, but rich in cultural contents, blocked by the Genoese in the 13th century. In the fifteenth century many Ligurians went to colonize Provencal sites depopulated by pestilence. At the same time, very intense commercial relations had developed, linked precisely to the importation of wines and salt from Provence, where instead oil and other oil derivatives were used, also used in cosmetics and in the manufacture of the famous Marseille soap. The DOC

Il Riviera ligure di Ponente - Rossese , D.O.C. Is recognized by the DPR of 31.03.1988 G.U. 31.01.1989. Characteristics

Production area: many municipalities of western Liguria, with centralization in the plain of Albenga and in the Finale area

Type: red.

Wine variety: Rossese, minimum 95%. Maximum permissible yield of the grapes, 90 Q.li per hectare.

Colour: Ruby red more or less intense

Perfume: The perfume is delicate, characteristic, winy.

Taste: Taste is dry, delicate, soft, pleasantly warm. Hints of rose, raspberry and strawberry. It has a medium consistency, never exuberant and a good balance with a typical bitter finish.

Optimum age: From one to two years after harvest, according to the vintage.

Conservation: In the cellar, lying down, in the red sector, at a temperature of 12-14%.

Serving temperature: Service temperature is 16 ° -18 ° C ..

Glass: for red wine glass with medium stem.

Accompaniments: Ligurian ravioli, stuffed with vegetables. Pasta or risotto, with meat sauce, poultry, veal stew. Rossese rabbit. Ligurian cima. Cannelloni with meat sauce. Semisolid cheeses. Chicken cacciatore.

The red berried grapes of the non-aromatic grape varieties recommended or authorized in the province of Imperia in the vineyards up to a maximum of 5% may also contribute to the production of this wine.

The area of production of Pigato and Rossese wines of the denomination of controlled origin Riviera Ligure di Ponente includes the following subdivisions of the

provinces of Savona and Imperia

In the province of Genoa for all their territory the municipalities of: Arenzano and Cogoleto.

The environmental and culture conditions of the vineyards

destined for the production of wines as per art. 1, must be the traditional ones of the area and, in any case, only those suitable for conferring the specific quality characteristics to the grapes and the derived wine. The planting procedures, the rearing forms and the pruning systems must be those generally used and in any case suitable not to modify the characteristics of the grapes and wine.

Wine-making operations must be carried out in the wine production area with a controlled designation of origin Riviera Ligure di Ponente

delimited in the art. 3. However, taking into account traditional situations, it is permissible for such operations to be carried out throughout the territory of the municipalities, even if only partially included in the demarcated area.

Riviera Ligure di Ponente Ormeasco

Colour: ruby red,, lively

Riviera Ligure di Ponente Ormeasco Sciac-Trà

Colour: coral pink

Overall minimum alcohol content: 11

Minimum total acidity: 5 per thousand Minimum net dry extract: 16 per thousand

The use of indications that refer to names or companies or private trademarks is allowed, provided they do not have a laudatory meaning and are not such as to mislead the purchaser. Without prejudice to the use of company names, the use of other indications, geographical and toponymy that refer to municipalities, fractions, areas, estates, areas

included in the area delimited in the previous art. 3. is not allowed

The historical information about Rossese, now cultivated in Dolceacqua, is often complicated by the presence in Liguria (and in the near Piedmont) of other Rossesi from the cultivation importance which is probably more relevant. A white-fruited Rossese, or at least slightly rosy, was cultivated in Mondovì (DI ROVASEN- DA, 1877). A white Rossese (or rather Roxeise) was considered the typical vine of Eastern Liguria and was renowned since the Renaissance for the wines that were obtained (GALLESIO, 1839). A red-fruit Rossese was present in the area around Ivrea (DI ROVASENDA, 1877). The Rossese nero (or rather 'nericcio', as defined by the Di Rovasenda) took on cultural importance in more recent times than the white Rossese, but it seems nevertheless already stated in the current main crop area near Ventimiglia and San Remo at least for a century and a half (GALLESIO, 1839). Dalmasso and Mariano (1963) indicate the presence of a different Rossese with coloured fruit (which, however, they do not describe) in the province of Savona, and this would be confirmed by the distinction between the Rossese di Ventimiglia and that of Campo-

chiesa that were jointly cultivated in the 60s on about 20% of the surface of the Tyrrhenian side of the province of Savona (DALMASSO and DELL'OLIO, 1964).

Main ampelographic characters

Bud before flowering (figure on the right): open, fluffy, greenish yellow with more or less intensely pink edges; small leaves from the 1st to the 3rd curved , of a yellowish or whitish-green colour (due to the presence of tomentum), more or less intently coppery; small leaves from the 4th to the 6th unfolded, yellowish green with coppery hints and sometimes a copper peziolate point; the 4th is superiorly arachnoid, inferiorly very fluffy; the anto-cyan color of the shoot is of medium or low intensity depending on the biotype.

Adult Leaf: medium, medium-large or large depending on the clones, pentagonalem eptalobata (but not rarely with more than seven lobes); U + V petiolar sinus, narrow or closed with slightly overlapping edges often with a tooth; lateral, lyre-shaped sinuses with the edges overlapping the upper, the lower U; flap of medium thickness, with a superficial bone and main ribs often bent, wavy margins of green colour with base of the main pink ribs; very pronounced teeth with concave or concave / convex margins; lower page with fluffy flap and ribs from bristly to velvety (ie with very abundant short tomentum) depending on the clones (figure on the side), long petiole, from almost glabrous to abundantly

bristly depending on the clones, from soft greenish pink

Problems related to anomalies in the setting and incompatibility of grafting can be considered in relation to the high diffusion of viral diseases,

with particular reference to curly wood

Schneider, F. Mannini, N. Argamante

Vermentino DOC il Vermentino

The most classic flavour of western Liguria ... a light, harmonious wine, rich in taste. The calling card for lunch, for a sunny afternoon, for an evening with friends, at sunset on the sea ... the wine that you find on every table, spread throughout Western Liguria. A taste that falls within the typical proverbs as much as in the mentality of the people.

The story of Vermentino is curious

Because it is the same vine variety that is present in Sardinia and Tuscany.

Common tradition refers to the possibility that Vermentino vine should be included with malvasia which arrived in the central-western Mediter- ranean through Spain. In fact, in 1973 the Quaini emphasized that the vines based on sweet wines with a strong personality from the Middle East would have first reached Liguria and the Ligurian areas of influence and only then Spain. Here only very late, and particularly between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, there would have been a notable development of viticulture.

In fact, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, here is what Chabrol says about the canton of Diano Marina (area of notable production of Vermentino): "Wine is also produced, but in small quantities: it does not cover even a quarter of the local needs, and it is necessary to import them above all from the coasts of France and Spain ".

It is still Chabrol who cites the Vermentino vine as a producer of one of the best wines in the western Liguria. He also highlights the possibility of growing vines at medium-high altitudes: "It has already been observed that hilly soils, supported by dry-stone walls that form terraces, are composed of crushed rock mixed with earth. The wine that

is produced and better and stronger than that of the plains. The flat land is wider and deeper: here the vine produces very well and more abundantly than in the hills, but the wine has a lower alcohol content ".

At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Gallesio recalls vermentino as one of the two most important grape varieties in Liguria. On the contrary, he names it as the "preferred vine of the Genovesato ... its fruitfulness, its precociousness and the sweetness of its grapes, and the quality of the wine it produces forms a set qualitieswhich it is difficult to find in another vine. ... its natural wine is a dry, mature and gentle wine ... and it is kept dry which is particular to it and the sweet that explains it remains so well combined with other principles that changes character and takes a relief that makes it compete with the wines of Spain…". Its particular presence in the Ligurian territory is affirmed by the fact that Vermentino is not found in Provence. Instead, it finds an important affirmation in the very fertile plain of Latte, where the great properties of the nobles of Ventimiglia are found.

Finally it must be said that often, at the end of the 19th century, Vermentino wine was mixed with pigato, the latter typical of the area close to Albenga.

The Ligurian Riviera di Ponente - Vermentino, D.O.C. is recognized by Presidential Decree of 31.03.1988 G.U. 31.01.1989

Production area: the Ligurian Riviera di Ponente, with prevalence for different types of quota. You can also find vineyards on the coast line or even valuable productions that fall under the category of "mountain wines".

Type: Dry white.

Vine: Vermentino, minimum 95%. Maximum allowed yield of the grapes, 110 Q.li per hectare. Also known as Malvasia grossa, Carbesso or Carbes. In France it is Malvoise à gros grains and Malvoise du Dourc.

Alcohol content: Alcohol 11%. It can also reach12-12%.

Colour: Straw yellow with slight greenish

reflections

Perfume: Delicate, characteristic, fruity and floral perfume with hints of field flowers, apple, fish and rarely banana.

Taste: Dry, flavoursome, even slightly acidic, refreshing for the palate.

Optimum age: Within one or two years of harvest

Storage: It should be stored lying in the cellar at a temperature of 12-14 degrees C.

Serving temperature: The serving temperature is 8-10 ° C.

Glass: For white, slender in order to better capture the flavour.

Serving suggestions: seafood appetizers, lasagne and gnocchi with pesto, trofie al pesto. Second courses based on boiled sea fish, baked sea bass with extra virgin olive oil, and other national and international dishes. Fresh, non-acid cheese. Interesting as an aperitif, it is traditionally a companion wine, for the late afternoon meeting together with simplicity.

The Vermentino wine production area of the denomination of controlled origin Riviera Ligure di

Ponente includes the aforementioned territories of the provinces of Imperia, Savona and Genoa.

The production area of the Ligurian Riviera di Ponente Ormeasco protected designation of origin includes the entire territory of the following municipalities in

the Province of Imperia: Armo, Cosio d'arroscia, Mendati- ca, Montegrosso Pian Latte, Pieve di Teco, Pornassio, Rezzo, Molini di Triora, Carpasio, Borgomaro, Pigna, Castelvittorio, Aurigo, Badalucco, Triora, Montalto Ligure, Ranzo, Borghetto d'Arroscia, Vessalico, Acquila d'Arroscia.

The area of production of the denomination of controlled origin Riviera Ligure di Ponente entitled to the sub-denomination Finalese includes in the province of Savona the entire territory of the following municipalities: Balestrino, Boissano, Borghetto Santo Spirito, Borgio Verezzi, Finale Ligure, Giustenice , Loano,

Magliolo, Noli, Orco Feglino, Pietra Ligure, Rialto, Toirano, Tovo San Giacomo, Vezzi Portio, and part of the territory of the municipalities of Calice Ligure (bordered to the north by the Apennine ridge);

The environmental and cultivation conditions of the vineyards dedicated to the production of wines as per art. 1, must be the traditional ones of the area and, in any case, only those suitable for conferring the speci fi c characteristics of quality to the grapes and the derived wine. The planting procedures, the rearing forms and the pruning systems must be those generally used and in any case suitable not to modify the characteristics of the grapes and wine.

The Liguria Region, every year, before the harvest, with its own decree, after hearing the professional organiza- tions of the category and taking into account the environmental and cultivation conditions, can fix maximum productions per hectare lower than those established by the present production disciplinary with reference to individual geographic areas or types of wine, informing the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Agriculture

Forests and the national committee for the protection of denominations of origin of wines.

Wine-making operations must be carried out within the area of production of wine with a protected designation of origin Riviera Ligura di Ponente delimited in art. 3. However, taking into account traditional situations, it is permissible for such operations to be carried out throughout the territory of the municipalities, even if only partially included in the demarcated area.

The use of indications referring to the use of

names or company names or trademarks, provided they do not have a laudatory meaning and are not likely to mislead the purchaser. Without prejudice to the use of company names, the use of other indications, geographical and toponymy that make reference to municipalities, hamlets, areas, estates, areas and locations included in the area defined in the previous art is not permitted. . 3.

On the qualitative value of Vermentino grapes, which have an abundant production, everyone agrees. Il Gallesio (1839), who says this enjoys the highest reputation of Ventimiglia in Sarzana, defines it 'Vitis ligustica feracissima', but at the same time exalts the precocity and sweetness of the grapes (also excellent for consumption in the fresh state) and the goodness of the wine.

On the other hand, the area of origin of this vine is less certain, some say Spain (MAS and PULLIAT, 1874/79), from which it would have spread to the northern Tyrrhenian coasts where it is still widely cultivated: France, Sardinia , Corsica, Tuscany as well as in all of Liguria. Malvoisie Précoce d'Espagne, Malvoisie à gros grains or simply

Malvoisie was the name of Vermentino in various French regions and in Corsica, while already Molon (1906) reported its synonymy (later refuted by Carlone 1963 b) with the Favorita of Piedmont. A cultivation is not considered separate from the Pigato (SCHNEIDER and MANNINI, 1990). In Lunigiana it takes the name of Vermentino reale.

Another synonymy reported by Truel (1984/85) would be between Vermentino, I and French Varlentin. But Galet (1990) does not appear to be of this opinion and suggests further comparative investigations. It is true, however, that Gallesio (1839) had taken over Vermentino's identity with the Rolle of Nice and the Verlantin of Antibes, while indicating the name of Picca-bon used in the Cinque Terre. Moreover, in this area the Vermentino, cultivated together with Albarola and Rossese (white), gave an excellent wine, Vernaccia di Corniglia, celebrated in the novels of Boccaccio and Sacchetti. According to the Welsh, Vernaccia would have been identified with the wine obtained from Vermentino, cultivated in association with Rossese also in the Savonese area, where Vernaccia was produced, referred to in 1391. The great renown that this wine was purchased also far from the place of origin, he obtained the use of calling vernaccia also other white fruit vines, which had nothing in common with the Vermentino della Liguria as it happened for that of San Gimignano.

Bud before flowering: open, round, white apex with carmine-colored edges; baby leaves from the 1st to the 3rd slightly, of a greenish-white colour with carminated rim and sometimes copper blurs; baby leaves from the 4th to the 6th , green in u with golden yellow and coppery hues; the 4th is inferiorly very fluffy; intensity of medium anthocyanic colouring.

Herbaceous shoot: curved or pastoral apical section, generally circular section and angular contour, of green colour on the ventral part, red on the dorsal part, moderately developed tendrils

Inflourescence: medium developed, cylindrical, often with a branching, apical end of the freshly rose tinged parts

Adult leaf: medium-sized or medium-large, pentagonal or orbicular, five-lobed or thicker than eptalobate; a lyre petiolar sinus or closed with edges generally not superimposed and sometimes a tooth; lateral lyre-shaped lateral sinuses with overlapping edges and often with a tooth, the lower ones are U p a ora, more rarely with overlapping edges; flap, often blistering over the whole surface and blistering at the base of the main ribs; the colour of the flap is green with ribs sometimes red or pink at the base; the profile is irregular, with tormented margins or a revoluta; very pronounced teeth, with margins of mixed type, even if concave / convex; the inferior page is from arachnoid to lanuginosa; medium-length petiole, streaked with dark pink

Cluster at maturity: medium-sized, conical or cylindrical winged, sometimes with a long pedicled wing, from sparse to medium compact; medium-length pedicle, woody in the first section; medium or medium-large berry, it can be from round to very short ellipsoidal; it has a medium-thick, medium pruinose, greenish-yellow skin that turns golden yellow or amber-coloured if well exposed to the sun; exposure to the sun also causes the typical rust-coloured staining on the surface of the acacia, called in Ligurian 'pigge' or 'pigghe', from which the name of the grape and Pigato vine derives; the vinacioli are medium-small, in number from 1 to 4 per berry (more frequently 1 or 2).

Woody shoots: hazelnut coloured

Distinctive characteristics: cottony bud, white with carminated edges; leaf quinque or eptalobata, bullosa with tormented margins, very pronounced teeth; conical or cylindrical cluster, winged, medium or medium-large berry, greenish yellow, golden or amber coloured skin if well exposed to the sun

Notable vigour and high productivity characterize this vine, which also has a good resistance to cryptogams. The productivity of females in Vermentino can also be relevant, especially in clones of considerable vigour and fertility. It adapts to both mixed and short pruning and multiplies without difficulty with the most common rootstocks. The production of a better quality product is achieved

however, in less humid and better exposed environments, and when the productive loads are avoided with pruning or other interventions.

The interest in this cultivation is deservedly increasing, in the same way as its diffusion, because it demonstrates good adaptation qualities to different cultivation conditions, maintaining a good level productively to the quality of the fruit.

Ormeasco DOC Drink the Middle Ages!

Drink the Middle Ages. Drink the Middle Ages of Western Liguria. The taste of the age-old relationship between Liguria di Ponente and southern Piedmont. One of the most typical vines of Piedmont becomes Ligurian, knows the sea air that mixes with that of the sun-drenched mountains and becomes a singular and pleasant wine.

History

It is an all-medieval story. In this mountain wine, which offers varied products between the Ormeasco, the Orpiscco Superiore and the Ormeasco Sciacchetrà, the spirit of the relationship between small lords and daring knights near the Alps is recreated. one side, one on the other. The Scarella of Pornassio on one side, perched in their castle, the Lords of Ormea and Ceva inherited from a long tradition of chivalry on the other. A relationship that brings the Dolcetto vine, traditionally considered to be Piedmontese, to have a revival in the Aroscia valley since the 14th century.

And here Dolcetto becomes "Ormeasco", in a reference to a Piedmontese relationship.

Historical quotes are often flattering. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, Agostino Bianchi cited the dolcetto called "ormeasco", as one of the best vines in the area. At the end of the nineteenth century, the wine from the Triora area, at rather high altitudes, is also close to the size of the dolcetto ormeasco.

The methods of preservation and of wine making diversify their qualities, which also evolve in Ormeasco Superiore and Schiacchetrà or Sciactra.

It is in the hinterland, with medium-high altitudes, hills and good exposure. The soil can be brown, calcareous marl, permeable and of good fertility.

The DOC

The Ligurian Riviera di Ponente - Ormeasco, D.O.C. is recognized by Presidential Decree of 31.03.1988 G.U. 31.01.1989. Ormeasco Superiore can be traded after 12 months of aging.

Production area

The area of production of the grapes suitable for the production of wines with a registered designation of origin

Pornassio" or "Ormeasco di Pornassio" falls within the province of Imperia. It includes land for the quality of the entire territory of the municipalities of Aquila d'Arroscia, Armo, Borghetto d'Arroscia, Montegrasso Pian Latte, Ranzo, Rezzo, Pieve di Teco, Vessalico and, for the Tyrrhenian side alone, the territory the municipalities of Mendatica, Cosio d'Arroscia and Pornassio in Valle Arroscia; the entire territory of the municipality of Molini di Triora in Valle Argentina and the orographic side falling in Valle Arroscia of the municipality of Cesio.

Ormeasco - Characteristics

Production area: high valleys in the Ingaune area of the upper Arroscia valley, with a centre in Pornassio.

Type: quiet red for a meal, The Superiore is more full-bodied

Grape variety: Produced with grapes of the sweet grape variety, minimum 95%. Maximum allowed yield of the grapes, 90 Q.li per hectare.

Alcohol content: 11% alcohol for Ormeasco, 12.5% for Ormeasco Superiore.

Colour: Bright ruby red colour with violet reflection

Perfume: The fragrant perfume, fruity with hints of cherry and violet, vinous when young. If properly justified (as in the case of the superior) it becomes more complex and fine.

Flavour: The flavour dry and edgy in youth, of discreet body, with the finish becomes harmonious, highlighting colour, softness, flavour and continuity.

Typical finish pleasantly bitterish.

Optimum age: it should be drunk preferably from 1 to 4 years after harvest. In some cases (the superiore), Or measco bears medium aging.

Serving temperature: Serving temperature is 16-18 °.

Glass: for a quiet red for a meal.

Serving suggestions: Pasta, first courses with sauces or fatty sauces, dishes with white meat, stew of meat for the Superiore Ormeasco, Farinata, Ligurian Rabbit, Semisolid cheeses. It is the perfect accompaniment to the "white kitchen" typical of the mountain area of Western Liguria, based on cheeses, also fermented, herbal soups, lard, lamb's meat, leeks sauces, potatoes.

Ormeasco Sciac-Tra

Denomination of Controlled Origin instituted with

D.D. 16 September 2003. Recognition of the name of the original subsidiary of «Pornassio» or «Ormeasco di Pornassio» and subsequent changes.

Production area: high valleys in the area of the upper Arroscia valley, with its centre in Pornassio and in the Argentina valley in Molini di Triora. Type: Rosé. It is produced with the traditional system of partial white wine production

Grape variety: Produced with grapes of the sweet grape variety, minimum 95%. Maximum yield of the grapes, 90 Q.li per hectare. Alcohol content: Alcohol 11%.

Colour: Soft cherry colour, tending to lively. Aroma: The bouquet is ample, fruity and fragrant, with hints of cherry and berry fruit.

Taste: The flavour is dry, flavourful, quite soft, persistent and generally balanced.

Optimum age: It should be drunk preferably within 1-2 years of harvest

Serving temperature: The serving temperature is 12 -14 °.

Glass: Quiet for meals.

Accompaniments: In the Ligurian Ponente context it is a wine that could be considered a summer and a pleasant one. It can accompany freshwater, barb or chub fish, caught in local streams. Accompanies the typical meal of the hinterland. Fish appetizers with rose sauce First courses with tomato sauce, fish soup, Livorno style mullet

Ormeasco Sciac-Tra - Features

Type: Rosé. It is produced with the traditional system of partial whte wine production

Grape variety: Produced with grapes of the sweet grape variety, minimum 95%. Maximum yield of the grapes, 90 Q.li per hectare.

Colour: Soft cherry colour, tending to lively.

Perfume: The perfume is ample, fruity and fragrant, with notes of cherry and forest fruits

Accompaniments: In the Ligurian Ponente context it is a wine that could be considered a summer and a pleasant one. It accompanies freshwater, barbel or chub fish, caught in local streams. Accompanies the typical meal of the hinterland. Fish appetizers with rose sauce. First courses with tomato sauce, fish soup, Livorno-style mullet

The Disciplinary

D.D. 16 September 2003. Recognition of the denomination of controlled origin of the wines «Pornassio» or «Ormeasco di Pornassio».

Art.1

Denominations and wines - The controlled designation of origin "Pornassio" or "Ormeasco di Pornassio" is reserved for wines that meet the conditions and requirements established in this product specification for the following types: red, sciac trà, red superiore , passito and liquorous passito.

Ampelographic basis - The red and "sciacra" wines with a denomination of controlled origin "Pornassio" or "Ormeasco di Pornassio" must be obtained from the grapes produced by Ormeasco or Dolcetto vines with the following composition in the company ampelography: Ormeasco or Dolcetto in percentage not less than 95%. For those remaining, up to a maximum of 5% of grapes of similarly non-aromatic grape varieties, either alone or jointly, however included in the classification of the recommended and authorized by the province of Imperia.

Grape production area - The production area of the grapes suitable for the production of wines with a denomination of controlled origin «Pornassio» or «Ormicola di Pornassio» falls within the province of Imperia. It includes the land suited to the quality of the entire territory of the municipalities of Aquila d'Arroscia, Armo, Borghetto d'Arroscia, Montegrosso Pian Latte, Ranzo, Rezzo, Pieve di Teco, Vessalico and, for the Tyrrhenian side only, the territory of the municipalities of Mendatica, Cosio d'Arroscia and Pornassio in Valle Arroscia; the entire territory of the municipality of Molini di Triora in Valle Argen- tina and the orographic side falling into the Valle Arroscia of the municipality of Cesio.

Rules for viticulture -

Natural environmental conditions - The environmental conditions of the vineyards used for the production of wines with a controlled designation of origin "Pornassio" or "Ormeasco di Pornassio" must be the normal ones of the area and capable of giving the grapes the specific characteristics quality. The vineyards must be located in land deemed suitable for the production of that appellation of origin. Exposure and unfavourable soils are to be excluded. - Plant density - For new plants and replanting plants the density of the plants per hectare can not be less than 4,500 in specialized cultivation.- Forms of rearing and planting - The plant spacing and the forms of rearing permitted are the traditional ones of the area: in particular, a simple and authorized backboard with a horizontal roof is recommended. The plant spacing is adapted to the forms of breeding. The region can allow different forms of farming if they are such as to improve the management of the vines without causing any negative effects on the characteristics of the grapes. Pruning systems - Pruning, in relation to the aforementioned vine growing systems, must be of mixed type.- Irrigation, forcing - Any form of forcing is forbidden. Rescue irrigation is allowed.

Rules for wine production

5.1 - Wine-making area.

Wine-making operations, including the compulsory aging, the enrichment of the alcoholic grade, the alcoholization of the liqueur wines, the grape harvesting must be carried out in the territory of the municipalities referred to in . art.

The Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies - National Committee for the protection and enhancement of denominations of origin and geographical indications typical of wines, after having heard the Liguria region and in

derogation from the above, may allow wine-making operations to be carried out within the area defined by the specification of wines with a 'controlled origin' name Riviera Ligure di Ponente », recognized by decree of the President of the Republic March 31 1988, to operators who, upon specific request, show that they have claimed this operation in the last two wine years prior to the date of approval of this discipline.

5.2 - Bottling area. The bottling of wines with a controlled designation of origin "Pornassio" or "Ormeasco di Pornassio" must take place within the area defined by the specification for wines with a protected designation of origin "Riviera Ligure di Ponente", recognized by decree of the President of the Republic of 31 March 1988.

5.3-Production of various types from the same vineyard . If the grapes of a given vineyard are used for the production of different types provided for by art. 1, it is permissible to allocate a part of the grapes of this vineyard to the production of the types "Pornassio" or "Ormeasco di Pornassio", and the relative types «Superiore», «Sciac-tra», «Passito», « Passito liqueur », provided that all the requirements laid down in this specification are met both for the grapes destined separately for a given type and for the remaining grapes of the same vineyard destined for another type.

Enrichers and fillers

The enrichment of musts and wines as per art. 1 within the limits established by the community and national regulations, with concentrated musts obtained from grapes registered in the register of the same denomination of origin or with concentrated must refined or cold concentrated or in any case with the technologies permitted by the legislation in force .

The various types as set out in Art 1 must be made in conformity with national communities legislation. It must be obtained only with the traditional oenological practices of the area, suitable to give the wine its peculiar characteristics. The type "Pornassio" or "Ormeasco di Pornasio" with the mention "Superiore" provides for the wine-making of the grapes which ensures a minimum natural alcohol content of 12 degrees.

The type "Pornassio" or "Ormeasco" of "Pornasio" with the mention "Sciac-tra" provides for the

the wine-making process of the grapes with a limited contact of the must with the solid parts to ensure the characteristic of the colour referred to in the following article.

The types "Pornassio" or "Ormeasco di Pornasio" with the mention "Passito" and "Passito liquoroso", must be obtained using grapes produced by the local Ormeasco or Dolcetto in the area delimited by this specification, which must have been dried naturally on the plant, on racks or in suitable rooms, with the exclusion of artificially heated air, also with dehumidifiers; the grapes must have a minimum sugar content of 260 gr / l.

Yield grape / wine and wine / hectare.

The maximum yield of grapes in wine, including any corrective additions and maximum production of wine per hectare, including the additions necessary for the production of wines are as follows:

Type of wine / ha: Pornassio - Ormeasco di Pornassio

Grape yield / wine: 70%

Mass production: 63 / hl

Type of wine / ha: Pornassio - Ormeasco di Pornassio Superiore

Type of wine / ha: Pornassio - Ormeasco di Pornas- sio Sciac-tra

Type of wine / ha: Pornassio - Ormeasco di Pornas- sio Passito

Grape yield / wine: 50%

Prod. Max: 45/hl

Type of wine / ha: Pornassio - Fortified Ormeasco

If the wine grape yield exceeds the limits mentioned above, but not more than 75%, even if the production per hectare remains below the maximum allowed, the excess does not have the right to the designation of origin. Besides this limit, the right to the registered designation of origin for the whole lot is forfeited.

The Liguria region, with its own decree, after hearing the interested group organizations, can, every year before the harvest, in relation to the climatic conditions and to the other cultivation conditions,

set a maximum limit of grape production per hectare lower than the one set by this specification, informing the Ministry for agricultural and forestry policies and the National Committee for the protection and enhancement of the denominations of origin and geographical indications typical of wines.

Aging

The following wines must undergo a period of aging: for the type «Pornassio» or «Or- measco di Pornassio» and «Pornassio» or «Ormeasco di Pornassio» with the mention «Sciac-tra» the release for consumption does not it can be done before the 1st March of the year following the harvest. For the type "Pornassio" or "Ormeasco di Pornassio" with the term "Superiore", the release to consumption can not be carried out before the 1st November of the year following the harvest. For the type «Pornassio» or «Ormeasco di Por- tona» with the term «Passito», the aging period is 12 months starting from 1 January of the year following the harvest. For the type "Pornassio" or "Ormeasco di Pornassio" with the mention "Passito Liquoroso" the aging period is 12 months starting from 1 January of the year following the harvest. For the "Pornassio" or "Ormeasco di Pornassio" typologies, the term "Superiore" and "Passito" is expected to be aged in oak or chestnut barrels for at least four months.

The use of indications that refer to names or company names or private trademarks is allowed, provided they do not have a laudatory meaning and are not such as to mislead the purchaser. Without prejudice to the use of company names, the use of other indications, geographical and toponymy that make reference to municipalities, hamlets, areas, estates, areas and locations included in the area defined in the previous art is not permitted. . 3.

Distilled spirits

Distilled spirits

Liguria di Ponente as a region of fine distilled spirits… rare and aromatic

The tradition of finding oneself one evening, on the return from hard country work, a land that does not give anything for free. Taste something that reconciles digestion ... here are the grappas of individual wine varieties, whether it be of Rossese, that of Pigato, that of Vermentino ... That of Rossese is often strong and has a and a noticeable fineness ... while those taken from the marc of the white wines are limpid, elegant, sublime in an impalpable way. Tradition

In Liguria di Ponente there is a long tradition of

distilled spirits. In the countryside, many still retain the ancient stills necessary for the creation of a household spirit. The continuous relationship with Piedmont, for commercial reasons, favours the exchange of information regarding the production of liqueurs. And so it is also possible to reach the facilities of artisan factories.

In 1889/1890 in the province of Porto Maurizio there were ten liquor and househole spirits factories, with 10 direct-fire stills, distilling 207 hectolitres of marc and 50 of wine. It was a limited production, but of remarkable quality.

The production of liqueurs was often linked to the confectionery trade . The presence of a demanding and selected clientele along the coast, in villas and hotels, required the production of delicious and elaborate desserts.

Among the old firms, there is Stefano Margaria di Oneglia, founded in 1867, the Ranzini Brothers of Imperia, founded around 1910 and still existing, as well as the Nervia di Camporosso's Principe and Ventimiglia's Joseph Gazan, a small Italian-French "Multi-national". In San Remo the Bersano Rossotti and C ..

At present all the main winemaking houses of the Riviera di Ponente present a line of refined single-vine grappa.

Texts by Alessandro Giacobbe

written by www.hotelrivieradeifiori.it

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